Effect of internal corporate social responsibility activities on tourism and hospitality employees ‘normative commitment during COVID-19

Tarek Sayed AbdelAzim, Ayman Kassem, Abdallah Alajloni, Abdullah Alomran, Ahmed Ragab, Eman Shaker


The purpose of this research is to explore the extent to which internal corporate social responsibility activities affect employees’ normative organizational commitment during the COVID-19 crisis and to survey the role of the administrative level as a moderator between the two of them. A survey in the form of a self-completed questionnaire was conducted on a sample of employees in hospitality and tourism establishments in Hail city, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. 213 employees voluntarily participated in the current study. Their responses were examined by using linear regression and exploratory factor analyses. The findings revealed that internal corporate social responsibility is a positive predictor of normative organizational commitment. The total effect of internal corporate social responsibility on normative organizational commitment could not be enhanced through the moderation of the administrative position. This study has important implications for both academics and professionals. Theoretical and managerial implications, contributions, limitations, and future study objectives were reviewed in light of the findings.


internal corporate social responsibility, normative commitment, tourism, Hospitality, Covid-19.

Full Text:



Adu-Gyamfi, M., He, Z., Nyame, G., Boahen, S., & Frempong, M. F. (2021). Effects of internal CSR Activities on social performance: the employee perspective. Sustainability, 13(11), 6235. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13116235

Aguilera, R. V., Rupp, D. E., Williams, C. A., & Ganapathi, J. (2007). Putting the S back in corporate social responsibility: A multilevel theory of social change in organizations. Academy of Management Review, 32(3), 836-863. https://doi.org/10.5465/amr.2007.25275678

Aguinis, H., & Glavas, A. (2013). Embedded versus peripheral corporate social responsibility: psychological foundations. Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 6(4). https://doi.org/10.1111/iops.12059

Allen, N. J., & Meyer, J. P. (1990). Organizational socialization tactics: A longitudinal analysis of links to newcomers' commitment and role orientation. Academy of Management Journal, 33(4), 847-858.

Ali, I., Rehman, K., Ali, S., Yousaf, J., & Zia, M. (2010). Corporate social responsibility influences, employee commitment and organizational performance. African Journal of Business Management, 4(12), 2796-2801. https://doi.org/10.5897/AJBM.9000159

Appiah, B. (2010). The impact of training on employee performance: a case study of HFC Bank (Ghana) Limited. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11988/63

Boyar, S. L., Maertz Jr, C. P., & Pearson, A. W. (2005). The effects of work–family conflict and family–work conflict on nonattendance behaviors. Journal of Business Research, 58(7), 919-925. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2003.11.005

Brammer, S., Millington, A., & Rayton, B. (2007). The contribution of corporate social responsibility to organizational commitment. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 18(10), 1701-1719.

Brammer, S., & Pavelin, S. (2006). Corporate reputation and social performance: the importance of fit. Journal of Management Studies, 43(3), 435-455. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467- 6486.2006.00597.x

Berg, M., Janoff-Bulman, R. and Cotter, J. (2001). Perceiving value in obligations and goals: wanting to do what should be done. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 27(8), 982-995. https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167201278006

Bolton, R. N. (2011). Comment: Customer engagement: Opportunities and challenges for organizations. Journal of Service Research, 14(3), 272-274.

Bontempo, R., Lobel, S., & Triandis, H. (1990). Compliance and value internalization in Brazil and the U.S.: Effects of allocentrism and anonymity. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 21(2), 200-213. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022022190212004

Canon, H. J. (2000). The responsible administrator: an approach to ethics for the administrative role. Journal of Higher Education, 71(6), 749-749.?

Castka, P., Bamber, C. J., Bamber, D. J., & Sharp, J. M. (2004). Integrating corporate social responsibility (CSR) into ISO management systems–in search of a feasible CSR management system framework. The TQM magazine,16(3), 216-224. https://doi.org/10.1108/09544780410532954

Cavazotte, F., & Chang, C.N. (2016). Internal corporate social responsibility and performance: a study of publicly traded companies. Brazilian Administration Review, 13(4). https://doi.org/10.1590/1807-7692bar2016160083

Chaudhary, R., & Akhouri, A. (2018). Linking corporate social responsibility attributions and creativity: Modeling work engagement as a mediator. Journal of Cleaner Production, 190, 809-821.

Cornelius N., Todres M., Janjuha-Jivraj S., Woods A., & Wallace J. (2008). Corporate social responsibility and the social enterprise. Journal of Business Ethics, 81, 355-370.https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-007-9500-7

Cooper, D.R. & Schindler, P.S. (2006) Business research methods. 8th Edition, McGraw Hill, Tata.

Cooper, S., & Wagman, G. (2009). Corporate social responsibility: a study of progression to the next level. Journal of Business & Economics Research, 7(5). https://doi.org/10.19030/jber.v7i5.2296

Dessler (2008) Human resources management. Jakarta: Index.

Dowling, G. (2001). Creating corporate reputations: Identity, image and performance: Identity, image and performance. OUP Oxford.

Dude, D. J. (2012). Organizational commitment of principals: The effects of job autonomy, empowerment, and distributive justice. Doctoral dissertation, The University of Iowa.

Edgar, F., & Geare, A. J. (2005). Employee voice on human resource management. Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resources, 43(3), 361-380.

Ehnert, I., Harry, W., & Zink, K. J. (2014). Sustainability and HRM. In Ina Ehnert, Wes Harry, Klaus J. Zink (Eds.), Sustainability and human resource management (pp. 3-32). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.

Ekawati, R., Prasetyo, D.A. (2017). The effects of internal corporate social responsibility on employees performance through organizational commitment in hospitality industry. Proceedings of the International Conference on Tourism, Gastronomy, and Tourist Destination (ICTGTD 2016). Atlantis Press.


Etzioni, A. (1999). Voluntary simplicity: Characterization, select psychological implications, and societal consequences. In Essays in Socio-Economics (pp. 1-26). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.

European Commission (EC). (2001). Green paper. Promoting a European framework for corporate social responsibility. http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_DOC-01-9_en.pdf accessed on 7.6.2013.

Felstead, A., Jewson, N., Phizacklea, A., & Walters, S. (2002). Opportunities to work at home in the context of work?life balance. Human Resource Management Journal, 12(1), 54-76. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1748-8583.2002.tb00057.

Foose, Gary J., Craig H. Benson, & Tuncer B. Edil (2002). Comparison of solute transport in three composite liners. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, 128(5), 391-403

Fu, H., Haobin, Y., & Law, R. (2014). You do well and I do well? The behavioral consequences of corporate social responsibility. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 40, 62-70. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhm.2014.03.004

Glavas, A., & Godwin, L. N. (2013). Is the perception of ‘goodness’ good enough? Exploring the relationship between perceived corporate social responsibility and employee organizational identification. Journal of Business Ethics, 114(1), 15-27.

Glavas, A., & Kelley, K. (2014). The effects of perceived corporate social responsibility on employee attitudes. Business Ethics Quarterly, 24(2), 165-202.

Droms Hatch, C., & Stephen, S. A. (2015). Gender effects on perceptions of individual and corporate social responsibility. Journal of Applied Business and Economics, 17(3), 63-71. https://digitalcommons.butler.edu/cob_papers/254

Herscovitch, L., & Meyer, J. P. (2002). Commitment to organizational change: Extension of a three-component model. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87(3), 474. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.87.3.474

Heathfield, S.M. (2021). What is an employee? Balance Careers. Available at https://www.thebalancecareers.com/what-is-anemployee-1918111 (accessed on 27 December 2022).

Hogarh, J. K. (2012). The effect of training on staff performance: a case study of SIC Insurance Company Limited. Master’s Thesis submitted to the Institute of Distance Learning, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology

Hughes, J., & Bozionelos, N. (2007). Work?life balance as source of job dissatisfaction and withdrawal attitudes: An exploratory study on the views of male workers. Personnel Review. https://doi.org/10.1108/00483480710716768

Huselid, M. A. (1995). The impact of human resource management practices on turnover, productivity, and corporate financial performance. Academy of Management Journal, 38(3), 635-672.

Kim, S. Y., & Park, H. (2011). Corporate social responsibility as an organizational attractiveness for prospective public relations practitioners. Journal of Business Ethics, 103(4), 639-653.

Koo, J. E., & Ki, E. S. (2020). Corporate social responsibility and employee safety: evidence from Korea. Sustainability, 12(7), 2649. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12072649

Kok P, Wiele T, McKenna R, Brown A (2001). A corporate social responsibility audit within a quality management framework. Journal of Business Ethics, 31(4), 285-297.

Kucukusta, D., Mak, A., Chan, X. (2013). Corporate social responsibility practices in four and five-star hotels: perspectives from Hong Kong visitors. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 34, 19-30. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhm.2013.01.010

Lau, C. M., & Ngo, H. Y. (2004). The HR system, organizational culture, and product innovation. International Business Review, 13(6), 685-703. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ibusrev.2004.08.001

Lindgreen, A., Swaen, V., & Johnston, W. J. (2009). Corporate social responsibility: An empirical investigation of U.S. organizations. Journal of Business Ethics, 85(2), 303-323. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-008-9738-8

Longo, M., Mura, M., & Bonoli, A. (2005). Corporate social responsibility and corporate performance: the case of Italian SMEs. Corporate Governance, 5(4), 28-42. https://doi.org/10.1108/14720700510616578

Low, P.M., Ong, F.S. (2015). The manifestation of internal corporate social responsibility on employees´ behavior in small medium sized enterprises. Journal of Social Science Studies, 2(2), 259-277. https://doi.org/10.5296/jsss.v2i2.7659

Marsh, R. M., & Mannari, H. (1977). Organizational commitment and turnover: A prediction study. Administrative Science Quarterly, 22, 57-75. https://doi.org/10.2307/2391746

Marchese, M. C., & Ryan, J. (2001). Capitalizing on the benefits of utilizing part-time employees through job autonomy. Journal of Business and Psychology, 15(4), 549-560. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1007814816178

Matten, D., & Moon, J. (2008). Implicit and explicit CSR: a conceptual framework for a comparative understanding of corporate social responsibility. The Academy of Management Review, 33(2). https://doi.org/10.5465/amr.2008.31193458

McWilliams, A., Siegel, D. S., & Wright, P. M. (2006). Corporate social responsibility: Strategic implications. Journal of Management Studies, 43(1), 1-18.

Meyer, J., & Allen, N. (1997). Commitment in the workplace, theory research and application. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.

Mensah, K.H., Agyapong, A., & Nuertey, D. (2017). The effect of corporate social responsibility on organizational commitment of employees of rural and community banks in Ghana. Cogent Business & Management, 4(1). https://doi.org/10.1080/23311975.2017.1280895

Meyer, J. P., & Herscovitch, L. (2001). Commitment in the workplace: toward a general model. Human Resource Management Review, 11, 299?326. https://doi.org/10.1080/23311975.2017.1280895

Meyer, J. P., & Allen, N. J. (1991). A three-component conceptualization of organizational commitment. Human Resource Management Review, 1, 61-89. https://doi.org/10.1016/1053-4822(91)90011-Z

Meyer, J. P., Allen, N. J., & Smith, C. A. (1993). Commitment to organizations and occupations: Extension and test of a three-component conceptualization. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78(4), 538-551. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.78.4.538

Meyer, J. P., Becker, T. E., & Van Dick, R. (2006). Social identities and commitments at work: toward an integrative model. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 27, 665?683. https://doi.org/10.1002/job.383

Meyer, J. P., Gagné, M., & Parfyonova, N. M. (2010). Toward an evidence-based model of engagement: what we can learn from motivation and commitment research. In S. Albrecht (Ed.), The handbook of employee engagement: perspectives, issues, research and practice (pp. 62?73). Cheltenham, UK: Edwin Elgar Publishing.

Meyer, J. P., Stanley, D. J., Herscovitch, L., & Topolnytsky, L. (2002). Affective, continuance, and normative commitment to the organization: A meta-analysis of antecedents, correlates, and consequences. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 61(1), 20-52. https://doi.org/10.1006/jvbe.2001.1842

Maung, E. S., & Chotiyaputta, V. The Impact of Corporate Social Responsibility on Employees’ Organizational Commitment: A Case Study of a Multinational Enterprise in Myanmar. Association of Private Higher Education Institutions of Thailand, 7(1), 91-102.

Morgeson, F. P., & Campion, M. A. (2003). Work design. In W. C. Borman, D. R. Ilgen, & R. J. Klimoski (Eds.), Handbook of psychology: Industrial and organizational psychology (Vol. 12, pp. 423– 452). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. https://doi.org/10.1002/0470048204.ch16

Morgeson, F. P., Delaney-Klinger, K., & Hemingway, M. A. (2005). The importance of job autonomy, cognitive ability, and job-related skill for predicting role breadth and job performance. Journal of applied psychology, 90(2), 399-406. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.90.2.399

Mory, L., Wirtz, B. W., & Göttel, V. (2016). Factors of internal corporate social responsibility and the effect on organizational commitment. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 27(13), 1393-1425.

Muchemedzi, S., & Charamba, L. (2006). National health and safety training course. Harare: NSSA.

Nawab, S. & Bhatti, K.K. (2011). Influence of employee compensation on organizational commitment and job satisfaction: a case study of educational sector of Pakistan. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 2, 25-32.

Neal, A., Griffin, M. A., & Hart, P. M. (2000). The impact of organizational climate on safety climate and individual behavior. Safety science, 34(1-3), 99-109. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0925-7535(00)00008-4

Nguyen, P-M., VO, D.N., Nguyen, P.N., & Choo, Y. (2020). Corporate social responsibilities of food processing companies in Vietnam from consumer perspective. Sustainability, 12(1), 1-18. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12010071

Papasolomou?Doukakis, I., Krambia?Kapardis, M., & Katsioloudes, M. (2005). Corporate social responsibility: the way forward? Maybe not! A preliminary study in Cyprus. European Business Review, 17(3), 263-279. https://doi.org/10.1108/09555340510596661

Porter, L. W., Steers, R. M., Mowday, R. T., & Boulian, P. V. (1974). Organizational commitment, job satisfaction, and turnover among psychiatric technicians. Journal of Applied Psychology, 59(5), 603-609. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0037335

Porter, M.E. and Kramer, M.R. (2006). Strategy & society: the link between competitive advantage and corporate social responsibility. Harvard Business Review, 84, 78-85.

Riana, I. G., & Wirasedana, I. W. P. (2016). The effect of compensation on organisational commitment and employee performance with the labour union as the moderating variable. Social and Economic Science, 3(2), 2356 – 2536.

Scholl, R.W. (1981). Differentiating organizational commitment from expectancy as a motivation force. Academy of Management Review, 6, 589-599. https://doi.org/10.5465/amr.1981.4285698

Ritchie, B.W. (2004). Chaos, crisis and disasters: a strategic approach to crisis management in the tourism industry. Tourism Management, 25, 669-683. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2003.09.004

Saragih, S. (2015). The effects of job autonomy on work outcomes: self efficacy as an intervening variable. International Research Journal of Business Studies, 4(3), 203-215. https://doi.org/10.21632/irjbs.4.3.203-215

Silaban, N., & Syah, T. Y. R. (2018). The influence of compensation and organizational commitment on employees’ turnover intention. IOSR Journal of Business and Management, 20(3), 1-6.

SoonYew, J., LaiKuan, K., Zaliha, H., & Kamaruzaman, J. (2008). The influence of employee benefits towards organizational commitment. Asian Social Science Journal, 4(8), 147-150.

Spiller, R. (2000). Ethical business and investment: a model for business and society. Journal of Business Ethics, 27, 149-160. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1006445915026

Thang, N.N., and Fassin, Y. (2016). The impact of internal corporate social responsibility on organizational commitment: evidence from vietnamese service firms. International Business Management, 10(6), 784-792. https://doi.org/10.36478/ibm.2016.784.792

Turker, D. (2009). How corporate social responsibility influences organizational commitment. Journal of Business Ethics, 89, 189-204. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-008-9993-8

Umer, Z., Danish, R.N. (2019). Linking corporate social responsibility (CSR) and affective organizational commitment: role of CSR strategic importance and organizational identification. Pakistan Journal of Commerce and Social Sciences, 13(3), 704-726.

Vizano, N. A., Utami, W., Johanes, S., Herawati, A., Aima, H., Sutawijaya, A. H., & Widayati, C. C. (2020). Effect of compensation and organization commitment on tournover intention with work satisfaction as intervening variable in indonesian industries. Systematic Reviews in Pharmacy, 11(9), 287-298.

Vuontisjärvi, T. (2006). Corporate social reporting in the European context and human resource disclosures: an analysis of Finnish companies. Journal of Business Ethics, 69(4), 331-354.

Wasti, S. Arzu and Can, Özge (2008). Affective and normative commitment to organization, supervisor, and coworkers: do collectivist values matter? Journal of Vocational Behavior, 73(3), 404-413. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2008.08.003

Wiener, Y. (1982). Commitment in organizations: A normative view. Academy of Management Review, 7, 418-428. https://doi.org/10.5465/amr.1982.4285349

Wiener, Y., & Vardi, Y. (1980). Relationships between job, organization, and career commitments and work outcomes: an integrative approach. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 26(1), 81-96.

Copyright (c) 2022 Tourism & Management Studies

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.