Factors that affect perceptions of tourism resources’ value: the case of the Caminito del Rey


  • Ismael P. Soler
  • German Gemar


asymmetric impact-performance analysis, Caminito del Rey, importance performance analysis, overall customer satisfaction, tourist resource


This study’s primary objective was to analyse the factors influencing overall customer satisfaction with tourism resources by applying two similar techniques with different approaches. A survey was conducted between June and December 2017, producing a total of 171 valid forms. Importance performance analysis (IPA) and asymmetric impact-performance analysis (AIPA) were used to process the data. The results suggest that El Caminito managers give low priority to generating tourist information about and satisfaction with this resource’s features. In addition, managers need to concentrate on improving signposting. IPA highlighted that the environment’s assessment is an overexploited factor, but AIPA suggested that this factor can still contribute to shaping customer satisfaction. The AIPA’s results also show that environmental cleanliness and El Caminito’s regular cleaning are fundamental factors in visitors’ high general satisfaction. This study’s systematic use of these analytical tools facilitated the identification of factors that add to or reduce the value of tourism resources, thereby helping to improve these resources’ quality and sustainability. The findings’ application could ultimately enhance this destination’s competitiveness and its overall success. 

Author Biographies

  • Ismael P. Soler
    University of Malaga
  • German Gemar
    University of Malaga


Aguiló, E., & Juaneda, S. C. (2000). Tourist expenditure for mass tourism markets. Annals of Tourism Research, 27(3), 624–637.

Albayrak, T., & Caber, M. (2013). The symmetric and asymmetric influences of destination attributes on overall visitor satisfaction. Current Issues in Tourism, 16(2), 149–166.

Albayrak, T., & Caber, M. (2015). Prioritisation of the hotel attributes according to their influence on satisfaction: A comparison of two techniques. Tourism Management, 46, 43–50.

Alegre, J., & Garau, J. (2011). The factor structure of tourist satisfaction at sun and sand destinations. Journal of Travel Research, 50(1), 78–86.

Anderson, E. W., & Mittal, V. (2000). Strengthening the satisfaction-profit chain. Journal of Service Research, 3(2), 107–120.

Anderson, E. W., Fornell, C., & Lehmann, D. R. (1994). Customer satisfaction, market share, and profitability: Findings from Sweden. The Journal of Marketing, 58(3), 53–66.

Archer, B., & Fletcher, J. (1996). The economic impact of tourism in the Seychelles. Annals of Tourism Research, 23(1), 23–47.

Arsal, I., Backman, S., & Baldwin, E. (2008). Influence of an Online Travel Community on Travel Decisions. En P. O’Connor, W. Höpken, & U. Gretzel (Edits.), Information and Communication Technologies in Tourism 2008 (págs. 82–93). Vienna: Springer-Verlag.

Baker, D. A., & Crompton, J. L. (2000). Quality, satisfaction and behavioral intentions. Annals of Tourism Research, 27(3), 785–804.

Banerjee, S., & Chua A, Y. (2016). In Search of Patterns Among Travellers’ Hotel Ratings in TripAdvisor. Tourism Management, 53, 125–131.

Barnes, S. J., Mattsson, J., & Sørensen, F. (2014). Destination Brand Experience and Visitor Behavior: Testing a Scale in the Tourism Context. Annals of Tourism Research, 48, 121–139.

Barreda, A., & Bilgihan, A. (2013). An Analysis of User-Generated An Analysis of User-Generated. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Technology, 4(3), 263–280.

Bimonte, S. (2008). The “tragedy of tourism resources” as the outcome of a strategic game: a new analytical framework. Ecological Economics, 67(3), 457–464.

Bowen, F. E. (2000). Environmental visibility: a trigger of green organizational response? Business Strategy and the Environment, 9(2), 92-107.

Brandt, R. D. (1987). A procedure for identifying value-enhancing servicecomponents using customer satisfaction survey data. En C. Suprenant (Ed.), Add Value to Your Service: The Key to Success (págs. 61–65). Chicago: American Marketing Association.

Bruyere, B. L., Rodriguez, D. A., & Vaske, J. J. (2002). Enhancing importance-performance analysis through segmentation. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 12(1), 81–95.

Bull, A. O. (1995). Economics of the Tourism Industry (In Spanish ed.). Madrid: Alianza Economía.

Caber, M., Albayrak, T., & Loiacono, E. T. (2013). The classification of extranet attributes in terms of their asymmetric influences on overall user satisfaction: an introduction to asymmetric impact-performance analysis. Journal of Travel Research, 52(1), 106–116.

Camison, C. (1998). otal quality management and cultural change: a model of organisational development. International Journal of Technology Management, 16(4-6), 479–493.

Celiento, I. (11 de October de 2017). Platform Architettura and Design. Recuperado el 14 de January de 2018, de http://www.platform-ad.com/renovation-of-the-caminito-del-rey-by-luis-machuca-asociados-arquitectos/

Chen, C. M., Chen, S. H., Lee, H. T., & Tsai, T. H. (2016). Exploring destination resources and competitiveness–A comparative analysis of tourists' perceptions and satisfaction toward an island of Taiwan. Ocean & Coastal Management, 119, 58–67.

Chen, C.-F., & Chen, F.-S. (2010). Experience quality, perceived value, satisfaction and behavioral intentions for heritage tourists. Tourism Management, 31(1), 29–35.

Chen, C.-F., & Tsai, D. (2007). How destination image and evaluative factors affect behavioral intentions? Tourism Management, 28(4), 1115–1122.

Chen, L. F. (2014). A novel framework for customer-driven service strategies: A case-study of a restaurant chain. Tourism Management, 41, 119–128.

Chen, L. F. (2015). Exploring asymetric effects of attribute performance on customer satisfaction using association rule method. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 47, 54–64.

Chon, K. S., & Olsen, M. D. (1990). Applying the strategic management process in the management of tourism organizations. Tourism Management, 11(3), 206–213.

Chu, R. K., & Choi, T. (2000). An importance-performance analysis of hotel selection factors in the Hong Kong hotel industry: a comparison of business and leisure travellers. Tourism Management, 21(4), 363–377.

Claver-Cortés, E., Molina-Azorín, J. F., & Pereira-Moliner, J. (2007). Competitiveness in mass tourism. Annals of Tourism Research, 34(3), 727-745.

Cordente-Rodríguez, M., Mondéjar-Jiménez, J. A., & Villanueva-Álvaro, J. J. (2014). Sustainability of nature: the power of the type of visitors. Environmental Engineering and Management Journal, 13(10), 2437-2447.

Cronin, J. J., & Taylor, S. A. (1992). Measuring service quality: A reexamination and extension. Journal of Marketing, 56(3), 55–68.

Crouch, G. I., & Ritchie, J. B. (1999). Tourism, competitiveness, and societal prosperity. Journal of Business Research, 44(3), 197–152.

Díaz, A. (1996). Tourism and the Environment: An Economic Analysis. En A. Pedreño, V. Monfort, & Eds. (Ed.), Introduction to Tourism (págs. 275-293). Madrid: Civitas.

Dwyer, L., Dragi?evi?, V., Armenski, T., Mihali?, T., & Kneževi? Cvelbar, L. (2016). Achieving destination competitiveness: an importance–performance analysis of Serbia. Current Issues in Tourism,, 19(13), 1309–1336.

El Mundo. (25 de May de 2016). El Mundo. Recuperado el 14 de January de 2018, de http://www.elmundo.es/andalucia/malaga/2016/05/25/5745e84cca474184788b4593.html

Ellerbrock, M. J., & Hite, J. C. (1980). Factors affecting regional employment in tourism in the United States. Journal of Travel Research, 18(3), 26–32.

Engler, T. H., Winter, P., & Schulz, M. (2015). Understanding Online Product Ratings: A Customer Satisfaction Model. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 27, 113–120.

Fong, L. H., Lei, S. S., & Law, R. (2017). Asymmetry of hotel ratings on TripAdvisor: Evidence from single-versus dual-valence reviews. Journal of Hospitality Marketing & Management, 26(1), 67–82.

Fuchs, M., & Weiermair, K. (2004). Destination benchmarking: An indicator-system’s potential for exploring guest satisfaction. Journal of Travel Research, 42(3), 212–225.

Garcia, F. A. (2014). A comparative study of the evolution of tourism policy in Spain and Portugal. Tourism Management Perspectives, 11, 34–50.

Gemar, G. (2016). Desarrollo local y turismo: un estudio de caso. Tourism & Management Studies International Conference (pág. 95). Olhão: Escola Superior de Gestão, Hotelaria e Turismo do Algarve.

Gutierrez, D., & García, F. (2001). Ecological segmentation in tourist destinations. Revista Estudios Turísticos, 149, 23-38.

Healy, R. G. (1994). The "common pool" problem in tourism landscapes. Annals of Tourism Research, 21(3), 596–611.

Hernández, J. M., Suárez-Vega, R., & Santana-Jiménez, Y. (2016). The inter-relationship between rural and mass tourism: The case of Catalonia, Spain. Tourism Management, 54, 43–57.

Hu, Y., & Ritchie, B. (1993). Measuring destination attractiveness: A contextual approach. Journal of Travel Research, 32(2), 25–34.

Hutchinson, C. (1996). Integrating environmental policy with business strategy. Long Range Planning, 29(1), 11-23.

i Baidal, J. A., Sánchez, I. R., & Rebollo, J. F. (2013). The evolution of mass tourism destinations: New approaches beyond deterministic models in Benidorm (Spain). Tourism Management, 184–195.

Iacobucci, D., Ostrom, A., & Grayson, K. (1995). Distinguishing service quality and customer satisfaction: the voice of the consumer. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 4(3), 227–303.

Joppe, M., Martin, D. W., & Waalen, J. (2001). Toronto’s image as a destination: a comparative importance-satisfaction analysis by origin of visitor. Journal of Travel Research, 39(3), 252–260.

Kim, S. S., Guo, Y., & Agrusa, J. (2005). Preference and positioning analyses of overseas destinations by mainland Chinese outbound pleasure tourists. Journal of Travel Research, 44, 212–220.

Kirillova, K., Fu, X., & Cai, L. (2014). What makes a destination beautiful? Dimensions of tourist aesthetic judgment. Tourism Management, 42, 282–293.

Kirk, D. (1995). Environmental management in hotels. International journal of contemporary hospitality management, 7(6), 3-8.

Kirk, D. (1998). Attitudes to environmental management held by a group of hotel managers in Edinburgh. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 17(1), 33-47.

Kozak, M. (2002). Destination benchmarking. Annals of Tourism Research, 29(2), 497–519.

Lee, J., & Back, K. (2008). Attendee-Based Brand Equity. Tourism Management, 29(2), 331–344.

Manhas, P. S., & Tukamushaba, E. K. (2015). Understanding Service Experience and its Impact on Brand Image in Hospitality Sector. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 45, 77–87.

Martilla, J. A., & James, J. C. (1977). Importance-performance analysis. Journal of Marketing, 41(1), 77–99.

Martin, D. W. (1995). An importance/performance analysis of service providers' perception of quality service in the hotel industry. Journal of Hospitality & Leisure Marketing, 3(1), 5–17.

Matzler, K., & Sauerwein, E. (2002). The factor structure of customer satisfaction: an empirical test of the importance grid and penalty-reward-contrast analysis. International Journal of Service Industry Management, 13(4), 314–332.

Matzler, K., Bailom, F., Hinterhuber, H. H., Renzl, B., & Pichler, J. (2004). The asymmetric relationship between attribute-level performance and overall customer satisfaction: a reconsideration of the importance–performance analysis. Industrial Marketing Management, 33(4), 271–277.

McKercher, B. (1993). The unrecognized threat to tourism: can tourism survive ‘sustainability’? Tourism Management, 14(2), 131–136.

Mihali?, T. (2013). Performance of environmental resources of a tourist destination: concept and application. Journal of Travel Research, 52(5), 614–630.

Mikuli?, J., & Prebežac, D. (2008). Prioritizing improvement of service attributes using impact range-performance analysis and impact-asymmetry analysis. Managing Service Quality, 18(6), 559–576.

Mikuli?, J., & Prebežac, D. (2011a). A critical review of techniques for classifying quality attributes in the Kano model. Managing Service Quality: An International Journal, 21(1), 46–66.

Mikuli?, J., & Prebežac, D. (2011b). Evaluating hotel animation programs at Mediterranean sun-and-sea resorts: an impact-asymmetry analysis. Tourism Management, 32, 688–696.

Ning, C., & Hoon, O. D. (2011). Sustainable development strategy of tourism resources offered by regional advantage: Exploring the feasibility of developing an ‘exotic culture’resource for Weihai City of China. International Conference on Green Buildings and Sustainable Cities. 21, págs. 543–552. Bologna, Italy: Procedia Engineering.

Park, S., & Nicolau, J. L. (2015). Asymmetric effects of online consumer reviews. Annals of Tourism Research, 50, 67–83.

Prideaux, B., & Cooper, C. (2003). Marketing and destination growth: A symbiotic relationship or simple coincidence? Journal of Vacation Marketing, 9(1), 35-51.

Priskin, J. (2001). Assessment of natural resources for nature-based tourism: the case of the Central Coast Region of Western Australia. Tourism Management, 22(6), 637–648.

Qu, H., & Sit, C. Y. (2007). Hotel service quality in Hong Kong: An importance and performance analysis. International Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Administration, 8(3), 49–72.

Radojevic, T., Stanisic, N., & Stanic, N. (2017). Inside the Rating Scores: A Multilevel Analysis of the Factors Influencing Customer Satisfaction in the Hotel Industry. Cornell Hospitality Quarterly, 58(2), 134–164.

Ritchie, J. B., & Crouch, G. I. (2003). The competitive destination: A sustainable tourism perspective. Wallingford:: Cabi.

Romeril, M. (1989). Tourism and the environment—accord or discord? Tourism Management, 10(3), 204–208.

Sainaghi, R. (2006). From contents to processes: Versus a dynamic destination management model (DDMM). Tourism Management, 27(5), 1053-1063.

Sever, I. (2015). Importance-performance analysis: A valid management tool? Tourism Management, 48, 43–53.

Slevitch, L., & Oh, H. (2010). Asymmetric relationship between attribute performance and customer satisfaction: A new perspective. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 29(4), 559–569.

Smith, S. L. (1987). Regional analysis of tourism resources. Annals of Tourism Research, 14, 254–273.

Soler, I. P., & Gemar, G. (2017). A measure of tourist experience quality: the case of inland tourism in Malaga. Total Quality Management & Business Excellence, 1–14. doi:10.1080/14783363.2017.1372185

Soler, I. P., Gémar, G., & Sánchez-Ollero, J. L. (2016). Are green hotels expensive? The impact of eco-friendly policies on hotel prices in spanish cities. Environmental Engineering and Management Journal, 15(7), 1511-1517.

Soutar, J. N. (2001). Service quality, customer satisfaction and value: An examination of their relationships. En J. Kandampuly, C. Mok, & B. Sparks (Edits.), Service quality management in hospitality, tourism and leisure (págs. 97–110). New York: The Haworth Press.

Tontini, G., dos Santos Bento, G., Milbratz, T. C., Volles, B. K., & Ferrari, D. (2017). Exploring the nonlinear impact of critical incidents on customers’ general evaluation of hospitality services. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 66, 106–116.

Uchiyama, Y., & Kohsaka, R. (2016). Cognitive value of tourism resources and their relationship with accessibility: A case of Noto region, Japan. Tourism Management Perspectives, 19, 61–68.

Uysal, M., Howard, G., & Jamrozy, U. (1991). An application of importance-performance analysis to a ski resort: a case study in North Carolina. Visions in Leisure and Business, 10(1), 16–25.

Wong, J. W., & Lai, I. K. (2018). Evaluating value co-creation activities in exhibitions: An impact-asymmetry analysis. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 72, 118–131.

Yang, C. H., Lin, H. L., & Han, C. C. (2010). Analysis of international tourist arrivals in China: The role of World Heritage Sites. Tourism Management, 31(6), 827–837.

Yang, Y., & Fik, T. (2014). Spatial effects in regional tourism growth. Annals of Tourism Research, 46, 114–162.

Yoon, Y., Gursoy, D., & Chen, J. S. (2001). Validating a tourism development theory with structural equation modeling. Tourism Management, 22(4), 363–372.






Tourism/Hospitality: Research Papers

How to Cite

Factors that affect perceptions of tourism resources’ value: the case of the Caminito del Rey. (2019). Tourism & Management Studies, 15(3), 7-16. https://tmstudies.net/index.php/ectms/article/view/1153