Examining transaction-specific satisfaction and trust in Airbnb and hotels. An application of BERTopic and Zero-shot text classification



Airbnb, Hotels, Satisfaction, Trust, BERT, Zero-shot


With a methodological approach, this article explores the application of
data mining to the user-generated content of tourist accommodation
on infomediation platforms and social networks. Its objective is to
present an algorithm that allows the identification of service
characteristics relevant to guest satisfaction and trust. Our study
processes unstructured, natural-language data about Airbnb and hotel
stays (the final dataset was 12,236 Airbnb sentences and 12,200 hotel
sentences from 2018 until September 25 2021). Among the results is a
computational algorithm that uses BERTopic to identify latent themes
(or topics) in the narratives. Secondly, our analysis applies a Zero-shot
classification approach for classifying guest reviews into labels related
to guests' satisfaction and trust. Thirdly, we execute a Principal
Component Analysis to investigate the sufficiency relationships
between extracted topics, customer satisfaction, and trust-based
labels. To sum up, and as practical implications, our study adds to the
knowledge about the sharing economy by providing insights for
developing marketing policies and a better understanding of hospitality

Author Biographies

  • Manuel Rey-Moreno, "University of Seville"

    Full Professor Marketing and Business Administration


  • Manuel Jesús Sánchez-Franco, "University of Seville"
    Full Professor Marketing and Business Administration
  • María De la Sierra Rey-Tienda, "Loyola University of Andalusia"
    Research Fellow-Master of Applied Research in Social Sciences


AirDND (2022). MarketMinder. Retrieved 10 January 2021 from


Alcofarado, A., Ferraz, T.P.., Gerber, R., Bustos, E., Oliveira, A.S., Veloso,

B.M.,Siqueira, F.L.,& Costa, A.H.R. (2022). ZeroBERTo: Leveraging Zero-

Shot Text Classification by Topic Modeling. Computational Processing of

the Portuguese Language. 15th International Conference, PROPOR

, Fortaleza, Brazil, March 21–23, 2022, ProceedingsMar 2022, 125–

Allee, V. (2003). The Future of Knowledge. Increasing Prosperity

Through Value Networks. Burlington, MA: Elsevier.

Alqayed, Y. Foroudi, P., Kooli, K., Foroudi, M.M., & Dennis, C. (2022).

Enhancing value co-creation behaviour in digital peer-to-peer

platforms: An integrated approach. International Journal of Hospitality

Management, 102, 103140.


Angelov, D. (2020). Top2vec: Distributed representations of topics.

Available at: arXiv:2008.09470.

Bagozzi, RP, Gopinath, M.,& Nyer, P.U.(1999): The role of emotions in

marketing. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 27(2), 184-206

Baker, J., Levy, M., & Evans, J.R. (1992). An experimental approach to

making retail store environmental decisions. Journal of Retailing, 68(4),


Bakker, I., Voordt, Th., Vink, P., & De Boon, J. (2014). Pleasure, arousal,

dominance: Mehrabian and Russell revisited. Current Psychology, 33(3),

-421. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12144-014-9219-4

Barbosa, B., Saura, J.R., & Bennett, D. (2022). How do entrepreneurs

perform digital marketing across the customer journey? A review and

discussion of the main uses. The Journal of Technology Transfer.


Belarmino, A., Whalen, E., Koh, Y., & Bowen, J. T. (2017). Comparing

guests' key attributes of peer-to-peer accommodations and hotels:

mixed-methods approach. Current Issues in Tourism, 22(1), 1-7.


Bierner, P.P. (2010). Total survey error: Design, implementation and

evaluacion. Public Opinion Quarterly, 74(5), 817-848.


Bierner, P.P: (2014). Dropping the "s" from TSE: Applying the paradigm

to Big Data. The 2014 International Total Survey Error Workshop

(ITSEW 2014). Washington, DC: National Institute of Statistical Science

Bigné, J. E., Andreu, L., & Gnoth, J. (2005). The theme park experience:

An analysis of pleasure, arousal and satisfaction. Tourism

Management, 26(6), 833-844.


Bresciani S., Ferraris A., Santoro G., Premazzi, K., Quaglia, R. Yahiaoui,

D., & Viglia, G. (2021). The seven lives of Airbnb. The role of

accommodation types. Annals of Tourism Research, 88, 103170.


Callegaro, M., & Yang, Y. (2018). The role of surveys in the era of Big

Data. In D.Vannette & J.Krosnick (eds.). The Palgrave Handbook of

Survey Research. Palgrave Macmillan, Cham.


Campello, R.J.G.B., Moulavi D., & Sander J. (2013). Density-based

clustering based on hierarchical density estimates. In Pei J., Tseng V.S.,

Cao L., Motoda H., Xu G. (eds) Advances in Knowledge Discovery and

Data Mining. PAKDD 2013. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol 7819.

Berlin: Springer.

Cheng, M. (2016). Sharing economy: A review and agenda for future

research. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 57, 60-70.


Consejería de Turismo y Deporte Junta de Andalucía (2022): Balance del

año turístico en Andalucía (BATA), Empresa Pública para la Gestión del

Turismo y el Deporte de Andalucía, Sevilla

Deloitte, (2019). Prague Hospitality Report, Tourism, Hotels & P2P

accommodation. Deloitte Central Europe.

Dickinger, A. (2011). The trustworthiness of online channels for

experience-and goal-directed search tasks. Journal of Travel Research,

(4), 378-391. https://doi.org/10.1177/0047287510371

Dogru, T., Hanks, L., Mody, M., Suess, C., & Sirakaya-Turk, E. (2020). The

effects of Airbnb on hotel performance: Evidence from cities beyond

the United States. Tourism Management, 79, 104090.


Dogru, T., Mody, M., & Suess, C. (2019). Adding evidence to the debate:

Quantifying Airbnb's disruptive impact on ten key hotel

markets. Tourism Management, 72, 27-38.


Dolnicar, S. (2018). Peer-to-Peer Accommodation Networks: Pushing

the Boundaries. Oxford, United Kingdom: Goodfellow Publishers.

Dolnicar, S. (2020). Sharing economy and peer-to-peer accommodation

– A perspective paper. Tourism Review, 76(1), 34-37.


Ert, E., Fleischer, A. & Magen, N. (2016). Trust and reputation in the

sharing economy: the role of personal photos in Airbnb. Tourism

Management, 55, 62-73.


Flavian, C., Guinaliu, M., & Gurrea, R. (2006). The role played by

perceived usability, satisfaction and consumer trust on website loyalty.

Information & Management, 43, 1–14.


Foroudi, P., & Marvi, R., 2021. Some like it hot: the role of identity,

website, co-creation behavior on identification and love. European

Journal of International Management (in press).


Gefen, D., & Straub, D. W. (2004). Consumer trust in B2C e-Commerce

and the importance of social presence: experiments in e-Products and

e-Services. Omega, 32(6), 407–424.


Gentile, C., Spiller, N., & Noci, G. (2007). How to sustain the customer

experience: An overview of experience components that co-create

value with the customer. European Management Journal, 25(5), 395-


Geyskens, I., Steenkamp, J-B.E.M., Scheer, L.K., & Kumar, N. (1996). The

effects of trust and interdependence on relationship commitment: A

trans-Atlantic study. International Journal of Research in Marketing,

(4), 303-317. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0167-8116(96)00006-7

Grootendorst, M. (2020). BERTopic: Leveraging BERT and c-TF-IDF to

create easily interpretable topics. Retrieved 15 December 2020 from


Guo, Y., Barnes, S.J., & Jia, Q. (2016). Mining meaning from online

ratings and reviews: Tourist satisfaction analysis using Latent Dirichlet

Allocation. Tourism Managment, 59, 467-483.


Guttentag, D., & Smith, S. L. (2017). Assessing Airbnb as a disruptive

innovation relative to hotels: Substitution and comparative

performance expectations. International Journal of Hospitality

Management, 64, 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhm.2017.02.003

Guttentag, D., Smith, S., Potwarka, L., & Havitz, M. (2018). Why tourists

choose Airbnb: A motivation-based segmentation study. Journal of

Travel Research, 57(3), 342–359.


Gyódi, K. (2017). Airbnb and the hotel industry in Warsaw: An example

of the sharing economy? Central European Economic Journal, 2(49), 23-


Hall, S. & Pennington, J. How much is the sharing economy worth to

GDP? (2016). Retrieved July 6, from



Haywood, J., Mayock, P., Freitag, J., Owoo, K. A., & Fiorilla, B. (2017).

Airbnb & hotel performance. STR publication. Hendersonville, USA.

Hugging Face (2023). What is Zero-Shot classification? Retrieved 10

March 2021 from https://huggingface.co/tasks/zero-shot-classification

Ikkala, T., & Lampinen, A. (2014), Defining the price of hospitality:

networked hospitality exchange via Airbnb. In Proceedings of the

Companion Publication of the 17th ACM Conference on Computer

Supported Cooperative Work & Social Computing, 173-176. Baltimore:


Jolliffe, I.T., & Cadima, J. (2016). Principal component analysis: a review

and recent developments. Philosophical Transactions A: Mathematical,

Physical and Engineering Sciences, 374 (2065), 20150202.


Jones, M. A., & Suh, J. (2000). Transaction-specific satisfaction and

overall satisfaction: An empirical analysis. Journal of Services

Marketing, 14, 147-159. https://doi.org/10.1108/08876040010371555

Ju, Y., Back, K. J., Choi, Y., & Lee, J. S. (2019). Exploring Airbnb service

quality attributes and their asymmetric effects on customer

satisfaction. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 77, 342-


Kessler, J.S. (2017). Scattertext: a Browser-Based Tool for Visualising

how Corpora Differ. Retrieved 10 March 2021 from arXiv:


Lalicic, L., & Weismayer, C. (2018). A model of tourists' loyalty: the case

of Airbnb. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Technology, 9(1), 80–93.


Lazos, F.J.M., & Steenkamp, J.B.E.M. (2005). Emotions in consumer

behaviour. A hierarchical approach. Journal of Business Research,

(10), 1437–1445. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2003.09.013

Lewis, M., Liu, Y., Goyal, N., Ghazvininejad, M., Mohamed, A., Levy, O.,

Stoyanov, V., & Zettlemoyer, L. (2019). BART: Denoising Sequence-to-

Sequence Pre-training for Natural Language Generation, Translation,

and Comprehension. Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the

Association for Computational Linguistics, 7871–7880.

Li, J., Hudson, S., & So, K. K. F. (2019). Exploring the customer experience

with Airbnb. International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality

Research, 13(4), 410-429. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJCTHR-10-2018-

Liang, L.J. (2015). Understanding repurchase intention of Airbnb

consumers: perceived authenticity, EWoM and price

sensitivity.Unpublished Master's Thesis, University of Guelph, Canada

Liu, Y., Ott, M., Goyal, N., Du, J., Joshi, M., Chen, D., Levy, O., Lewis, M.,

Zettlemoyer, L., & Stoyanov, V. (2020). RoBERTa: A robustly optimised

BERT pretraining approach. arXiv preprint arXiv: 1907.11692

Lovelock, Ch., & Wirtz, J. (2007). Services marketing: People,

technology, strategy. 6th ed. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

Lu, Y., Zhao, L., & Wang, B. (2010). From virtual community members to

C2C e-commerce buyers: Trust in virtual communities and its effect on

consumers' purchase intention. Electronic Commerce Research and

Applications, 9(4), 346–360.


Mayer, R.C., Davis, J.H., & Schoorman, F.D. (1995). An integrative model

of organisational trust. Academy of Management Review, 20(3), 709-


McInnes L., & Healy J. (2017). Accelerated Hierarchical Density-Based

Clustering. 2017 IEEE International Conference on Data Mining

Workshops (ICDMW), 33-42.

McInnes, L., Healy, J., & Melville, J. (2018). UMAP: Uniform Manifold

Approximation and Projection. Journal of Open Source Software, 3(29),


Meyer, C., & Schwager, A. (2007). Understanding customer

experience. Harvard Business Review, 85(2), 116.

Mody, M., & Hanks L. (2020). Consumption authenticity in the

accommodations industry: The keys to brand love and brand loyalty for

hotels and Airbnb. Journal of Travel Research, 59(1), 173-189.


Mody, M., Suess, C., & Lehto, X. (2019). Going back to its roots: can

hospitableness provide hotels competitive advantage over the sharing

economy. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 76, 286-


Mudie, P., Cottam, A., & Raeside, R. (2003). An exploratory study of

consumption emotion in services. The Service Industries Journal, 23(5),

–116. https://doi.org/10.1080/02642060308565625

Oliver, R. (1997). Satisfaction: a behavioural perspective on the

customer. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Oliver, R. (2010). Customer Satisfaction. Wiley International

Encyclopedia of Marketing

Osman, H., D'Acunto, D., & Johns, N. (2019). Home and away: Why do

consumers shy away from reporting negative experiences in the peerto-

peer realms? Psychology & Marketing, 36(12), 1162–1175.

Pappas, N. (2019). The complexity of consumer experience formulation

in the sharing economy. International Journal of Hospitality

Management, 77, 415-424.


Petroni, F., Rocktaschel, T., Riedel, S., Lewis, P., Bakhtin, A., Wu, Y., &

Miller, A. (2019). Language models as knowledge bases? In Proceedings

of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language

Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural

Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP) (2463-2473). Association for

Computational Linguistics. https://dolorg/10.18653/V1/d19-1248

Pijls, R., Groen, B.H., Galetzka, M., & Pruyn, A.T.H. (2017). Measuring

the experience of hospitality: Scale development and validation.

International Journal of Hospitality Management, 67, 125-133.


Prahalad, C.K., & Ramaswamy, V. (2004). The Future of Competition: Co-

Creating Unique Value with Customers. Boston, MA: Harvard Business


Quoquab, F, & Mohammad, J. (2022). The salient role of media richness,

host-guest relationship, and guest satisfaction in fostering airbnb

guests' repurchase intention. Journal of Electronic Commerce Research,

(2), 59-76.

Rodríguez, I., & San Martín, H. (2008). Tourist satisfaction. A cognitive –

affective model. Annals of Tourism Research, 35(2), 551–573.


Sainaghi, R., & Baggio, R. (2020). Substitution threat between Airbnb

and hotels: Myth or reality? Annals of Tourism Research, 83, 102959.


Sánchez-Franco, M.J., Navarro-García, A. & Rondán-Cataluña, F.J.

(2016). Online customer service reviews in urban hotels: A data mining

approach. Psychology & Marketing, 33(12), 1174-1186.


Sánchez-Franco, M.J., & Rey-Moreno, M. (2021). Do travelers' reviews

depend on the destination? An analysis In coastal and urban peer-topeer

lodgings. Psychology & Marketing, 39(2), 441–459.


Santos, J.A.C., Fernández-Gámez, M.A., Solano-Sánchez, M.A., Rey-

Carmona, F.J., & Caridad y López del Río, L. (2021). Valuation models for

holiday rentals'daily rates: Price composition based on Booking.com.

Sustainability, 13(1), 292, htps://doi.org/10.3390/su13010292

Saura, J.R., Palacios-Marqués, D., & Ribeiro-Soriano, D. (2023).

Exploring the boundaries of opern innovation: evidence from social

media mining. Technovation, 119, 102447.


Saura, J.R., Ribeiro-Soriano, D., & Palacios-Marqués, D. (2021). Setting

B2B digital marketing in artificial intelligence-based CRMs: A review and

directions for future research. Industrial Marketing Management, 98,

-178. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indmarman.2021.08.006

Sirdeshmukh, D., Singh, J., & Sabol, B. (2002). Consumer trust, value,

and loyalty in relational exchanges. Journal of Marketing, 66(1), 15–37.


Solano-Sánchez, M.A., Santos, J.A.C., Santos, M.C., & Fernández-Gámez,

M.A. (2021). Holiday rentals in cultural tourism destinations: a

comparison of Booking.com-based daily rate estimation for Seville and

Porto. Economies, 9(4), 157,


Sthapit, E., & Jimenez-Barreto, J. (2018). Exploring tourists' memorable

hospitality experiences: An Airbnb perspective. Tourism Management

Perspectives, 28, 83-92. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tmp.2018.08.006

Sun, Y., Ma, H., & Chan, E.H.W. (2018). A model to measure tourist

preference towards scenic spots based on social media data: A case of

Dapeng in China. Sustainability, 10(1), 43.


Tan, F.B., & Sutherland, P. (2004). Online consumer trust: A multidimensional

model. Journal of Electronic Commerce in Organizations,

(3), 40-58. https://doi.org/10.4018/jeco.2004070103

Tussyadiah, I. P., & Pesonen, J. (2016). Impacts of peer-to-peer

accommodation use on travel patterns. Journal of Travel

Research, 55(8), 1022-1040.


Tussyadiah, I. P., & Zach, F. (2017). Identifying salient attributes of peerto-

peer accommodation experience. Journal of Travel & Tourism

Marketing, 34(5), 636-652.


Virtanen, P, Gomers, R., Oliphant, T.E.,Haberland, M., Reddy, T.,...& Van

Mulbregt (2020). SciPy 1.0: Fundamental Algorithms for Scientific

Computing in Python. Nature Methods, 17, 261-272.


Xian, Y., Lampert, C.H., Schiele, B., & Akata, Z. (2020). Zero-Shot

learning: A comprehensive evaluation of the good, the bad and the ugly.

arXiv preprint arXiv: 1707.00600

Yang, G., Ye, Z., Zhang, R., & Huang, K. (2022). A comprehensive survey

of Zero-Shot image classification: methods, implementation and fair

evaluation. Applied Computing and Intelligence, 2 (1), 1-31.


Ye, S., Chen, S., & Paek, S. (2023). Moderating effect of trust on

customer return intention formation in peer-to-peer sharing

accommodation. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, 47(2), 328-


Yin, W., Hay, J., & Roth, D. (2019). Benchmarking zero-shot text

classification: Datasets, evaluation and entailment approach. In

Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural

Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on

Natural Language Processing, 3914–3923, Hong Kong, China,

November 3–7, 2019.

Yu, Y., & Dean, A. (2001). The contribution of emotional satisfaction to

consumer loyalty. International Journal of Service Industry

Management, 12(3), 234–250.


Zach F.J., Nicolau J.L., & Sharma A. (2020). Disruptive innovation,

innovation adoption and incumbent market value: The case of Airbnb.

Annals of Tourism Research, 80, 102818.


Zajonc, R. B. (1980). Feeling and thinking: Preferences need no

inferences. American Psychologist, 35(2).


Zervas G., Proserpio D., & Byers J.W. (2021). A first look at online

reputation on Airbnb, where every stay is above average. Marketing

Letters, 32, 1–16. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11002-020-09546-4

Zhu, L., Lin, Y., & Cheng, M. (2020). Sentiment and guest satisfaction

with peer-to-peer accommodation: when are online ratings more

trustworthy? International Journal of Hospitality Management, 86

(3688), 102369. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhm.2019.102369






Tourism/Hospitality: Research Papers

How to Cite

Rey-Moreno, M., Sánchez-Franco, M. J., & Rey-Tienda, M. D. la S. (2023). Examining transaction-specific satisfaction and trust in Airbnb and hotels. An application of BERTopic and Zero-shot text classification. Tourism & Management Studies, 19(2), 21-37. https://tmstudies.net/index.php/ectms/article/view/1944

Most read articles by the same author(s)