Psychological coaching as a driver of young entrepreneurs’ enhanced networking capabilities



young entrepreneurs, networking, psychological coaching, personality traits


According to the Global Entrepreneurship Index 2018, Portugal’s entrepreneurship is suboptimal due to Portuguese entrepreneurs’ low networking capacity. This research focused on psychological and personality traits that may contribute to this suboptimal performance. The study was based on 331 young adults who answered a questionnaire composed of three parts: sociodemographic questions, the Portuguese Entrepreneurial Psychological Traits Inventory (PEPTI) and the Big Five Inventory (BFI-44). The results show that young Portuguese entrepreneurs score higher on the PEPTI and four of the BFI-44’s five dimensions. However, the differences detected in the agreeableness trait scores are not statistically significant, which is a possible reason for the reported suboptimal networking skills. Since networking capabilities are important for successful entrepreneurship, the findings include the need to create a psychological coaching programme for young Portuguese entrepreneurs to enhance various soft skills that could improve their networking capabilities.


Ács, Z., Szerb, L., & Lloyd, A. (2017). The Global Entrepreneurship Index 2018. Washington, D.C.: The Global Entrepreneurship and Development Institute.

Beck, T., Demirguc-Kunt, A., Laeven, L., & Levine, R. (2008). Finance, firm size, and growth. Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, 40(7), 1379–1405.

Biggiero, L. (2001). Self-organizing processes in building entrepreneurial networks: a theoretical and empirical investigation. Human Systems Management, 20(September), 209–222.

Bishara, A. J., & Hittner, J. B. (2012). Testing the significance of a correlation with nonnormal data: Comparison of Pearson, Spearman, transformation, and resampling approaches. Psychological Methods, 17(3), 399–417.

Carree, M. A., & Thurik, A. R. (2010). The Impact of Entrepreneurship on Economic Growth. Em Handbook of Entrepreneurship Research (pp. 557–594). New York, NY: Springer New York.

Davis, M. H., Hall, J. A., & Mayer, P. S. (2016). Developing a new measure of entrepreneurial mindset: Reliability, validity, and implications for practitioners. Consulting Psychology Journal, 68(1), 21–48.

Denissen, J. J. A., & Penke, L. (2008). Motivational individual reaction norms underlying the Five-Factor model of personality: First steps towards a theory-based conceptual framework. Journal of Research in Personality, 42(5), 1285–1302.

Farrugia, P., Petrisor, B. A., Farrokhyar, F., & Bhandari, M. (2009). Practical tips for surgical research: Research questions, hypotheses and objectives. Canadian journal of surgery. Journal canadien de chirurgie, 53(4), 278–281.

Forret, M. L., & Dougherty, T. W. (2001). Correlates of Networking Behavior for Managerial and Professional Employees. Group and Organization Management, 26(3), 283–311.

Galvão, A., & Pinheiro, M. (2016). Predisposição para o empreendedorismo : as características psicológicas podem-nos dizer algo sobre os empresários portugueses ? Em 3o Congresso da Ordem dos Psicólogos Portugueses (pp. 923–933). Porto.

Galvão, A., & Pinheiro, M. (2017). Pragmatism, need for comfort and need for acceptance – psychological traits for successful entrepreneurship in Portugal. Journal of Spatial and Organizational Dynamics, V(3), 264–277.

Galvão, A., Pinheiro, M., & Fernandes, P. O. (2016). Idiosyncratic psychological aspects in entrepreneurship. Em Proceedings of the International Congress on Interdisciplinarity in Social and Human Sciences (pp. 171–178).

Ghasemi, A., & Zahediasl, S. (2012). Normality tests for statistical analysis: A guide for non-statisticians. International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism, 10(2), 486–489.

Goleman, D. (1995). Emotional intelligence. New York: Bantam.

Grant, A. M. (2006). Coaching Psychology. International Coaching Psychology Review, 1(1), 12–22.

Jack, S. L. (2010). Approaches to studying networks: Implications and outcomes. Journal of Business Venturing, 25(1), 120–137.

Jensen-Campbell, L. A., Gleason, K. A., Adams, R., & Malcolm, K. T. (2003). Interpersonal Conflict, Agreeableness, and Personality Development. Journal of Personality, 71(6), 1059–1085.

John, O., Donahue, E., & Kentle, R. (1991). The Big Five Inventory - Versions 4a and 54. Journal of Research in Personality, 37(6), 504–528.

John, O., & Srivastava, S. (1999). The Big Five trait taxonomy: History, measurement, and theoretical perspectives. Handbook of personality: Theory and research, 2(510), 102–138.

Lee, D. Y., & Tsang, E. W. K. (2001). The effects of entrepreneurial personality, background and network activities on venture growth. Journal of Management Studies, 38(4), 583–602.

Marques, A. P. (2016). Aprendizagens Empreendedoras no Ensino Superior: Redes, Competências e Mercado de Trabalho. Vila Nova de Famalicão: Edições Humus, Lda.

Martins, S., Galvão, A., & Pinheiro, M. (2017). Social entrepreneurship, psychological coaching as a developer of competences. Em III Congresso Ibero-Americano de Empreendedorismo, Energia, Ambiente e Tecnologia Social (pp. 413–418).

Maslow, A. H. (1954). A theory of human motivation. Motivation and Personality, (7), 15–31.

Mukaka, M. M. (2012). Statistics corner: A guide to appropriate use of correlation coefficient in medical research. Malawi Medical Journal, 24(3), 69–71.

Nelson, R. E. (2001). On the shape of verbal networks in organizations. Organization Studies, 22(5), 797–823.

Nettle, D. (2006). Psychological profiles of professional actors. Personality and Individual Differences, 40(2), 375–383.

Nohria, N., & Eccles, R. G. (1992). Networks and organizations : structure, form, and action. Harvard Business School Press.

Parkhe, A., Wasserman, S., & Ralston, D. A. (2006). New frontiers in network theory development. The Academy of Management Journal, 31(3), 560–568.

Premand, P., Brodmann, S., Almeida, R., Grun, R., & Barouni, M. (2016). Entrepreneurship Education and Entry into Self-Employment Among University Graduates. World Development, 77, 311–327.

Rego, A. (2000). Os motivos de sucesso, afiliação e poder: desenvolvimento e validação de um instrumento de medida. Análise Psicológica, 3(XVIII), 335–344.

Shane, S. (2004). Encouraging university entrepreneurship? The effect of the Bayh-Dole Act on university patenting in the United States. Journal of Business Venturing, 19(1), 127–151.

Shinnar, R., Pruett, M., & Toney, B. (2009). Entrepreneurship Education: Attitudes Across Campus. Journal of Education for Business, 84(3), 151–159.

Shipilov, A., Labianca, G., Kalnysh, V., & Kalnysh, Y. (2014). Network-building behavioral tendencies, range, and promotion speed. Social Networks, 39(1), 71–83.

Shu, R., Ren, S., & Zheng, Y. (2018). Building networks into discovery: The link between entrepreneur network capability and entrepreneurial opportunity discovery. Journal of Business Research, 85, 197–208.

Valkokari, K., & Helander, N. (2007). Knowledge management in different types of strategic SME networks. Management Research News, 30(8), 597–608.

Wanberg, C. R., & Kammeyer-Mueller, J. D. (2000). Predictors and outcomes of proactivity in the socialization process. Journal of Applied Psychology, 85(3), 373–385.

Whitworth, L., Kimsey-House, K., Kimsey-House, H., & Sandahl, P. (2007). Co-active Coaching: New Skills for Coaching People Toward Success in Work and Life, 312.

Wolff, H., & Kim, S. (2012). The relationship between networking behaviors and the Big Five personality dimensions. Career Development International, 17(1), 43–66.

Wood, M. S. (2009). Does one Size fit all? The multiple organizational forms leading to successful academic entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, 33(4), 929–947.






Business/Management: Research Papers

How to Cite

Galvão, A., & Pinheiro, M. (2019). Psychological coaching as a driver of young entrepreneurs’ enhanced networking capabilities. Tourism & Management Studies, 15(1), 81-89.