How does COVID-19 fear affect job insecurity and stress for hospitality employees? A moderated mediation model for age and financial status



COVID-19 fear, job insecurity, stress, financial situation, hotel employees, moderated mediation


This study aims to understand the integrated effect of COVID-19 fear, age, financial situation, and job insecurity on the perceived stress of employees of five-star hotels during the COVID-19 pandemic by proposing a moderated mediation model. A survey was administered to 631 hotel employees working in 22 different five-star hotels in Alanya, Turkey. Moderator, mediation, and moderated mediation relationships were tested with the SPSS macro PROCESS. It was found that COVID-19 fear has both direct and interactive effects on stress and job insecurity, and the indirect effect of COVID-19 fear on stress through job insecurity varies according to the age of the employees and their financial status. The results, which contribute to a better understanding of the effects of COVID-19 on hospitality employees, point out the importance of financial support (organisational and governmental) and transparent communication between the management and employees in times of crisis, such as the COVID-19 pandemic. It is also suggested that hotels should review their unpaid leave policies. The limitations of the study are discussed at the end.

Author Biographies

  • Engin Üngüren, Alanya Alaaddin Keykubat University

    Alanya Alaaddin Keykubat University, Faculty of Economics, Administrative and Social Sciences, Department of Business Administration, Alanya, Turkey, ORCID ID: 0000-0002-7223-2543, E-mail:

  • Serdar Arslan, Alanya Alaaddin Keykubat University

    Alanya Alaaddin Keykubat University, Faculty of Economics, Administrative and Social Sciences, Department of Business Administration, Alanya, Turkey,ORCID ID: 0000-0003-0482-4800, E-mail address:


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Tourism/Hospitality: Research Papers

How to Cite

Üngüren, E., & Arslan, S. (2023). How does COVID-19 fear affect job insecurity and stress for hospitality employees? A moderated mediation model for age and financial status. Tourism & Management Studies, 18(3), 7-20.