How does COVID-19 fear affect job insecurity and stress for hospitality employees? A moderated mediation model for age and financial status

Engin Üngüren, Serdar Arslan

Abstract


This study aims to understand the integrated effect of COVID-19 fear, age, financial situation, and job insecurity on the perceived stress of employees of five-star hotels during the COVID-19 pandemic by proposing a moderated mediation model. A survey was administered to 631 hotel employees working in 22 different five-star hotels in Alanya, Turkey. Moderator, mediation, and moderated mediation relationships were tested with the SPSS macro PROCESS. It was found that COVID-19 fear has both direct and interactive effects on stress and job insecurity, and the indirect effect of COVID-19 fear on stress through job insecurity varies according to the age of the employees and their financial status. The results, which contribute to a better understanding of the effects of COVID-19 on hospitality employees, point out the importance of financial support (organisational and governmental) and transparent communication between the management and employees in times of crisis, such as the COVID-19 pandemic. It is also suggested that hotels should review their unpaid leave policies. The limitations of the study are discussed at the end.


Keywords


COVID-19 fear; job insecurity; stress; financial situation; hotel employees; moderated mediation

Full Text:

PDF

References


Addis, M., & Holbrook, M. B. (2001). On the conceptual link between mass customisation and experiential consumption: an explosion of subjectivity. Journal of Consumer Behaviour: An International Research Review, 1(1), 50-66.

Aguinis, H., Ramani, R. S., & Alabduljader, N. (2020). Best-practice recommendations for producers, evaluators, and users of methodological literature reviews. Organizational Research Methods, 2020, 1-31.

Akaka, M. A., Vargo, S. L., & Schau, H. J. (2015). The context of experience. Journal of Service Management. 26(2), 206-223.

Bravo, R., Martinez, E., & Pina, J. M. (2019). Effects of service experience on customer responses to a hotel chain. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 31(1), 389-405.

Chadegani, A., Salehi, H., Yunus, M., Farhadi, H., Fooladi, M., Farhadi, M., & Ale Ebrahim, N. (2013). A comparison between two main academic literature collections: Web of Science and Scopus databases. Asian social science, 9(5), 18-26.

Ciuchita, R., Mahr, D., & Odekerken-Schröder, G. (2019). “Deal with it”: How coping with e-service innovation affects the customer experience. Journal of Business Research, 103, 130-141.

Cova, B. (2020). The new frontier of consumer experiences: escape through pain. AMS Review, 1-10.

Cova, V., & Cova, B. (2019). Pain, suffering and the consumption of spirituality: a toe story. Journal of Marketing Management, 35(5-6), 565-585.

Dacko, S. G. (2017). Enabling smart retail settings via mobile augmented reality shopping apps. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 124, 243-256.

Dion, D., & Borraz, S. (2017). Managing status: How luxury brands shape class subjectivities in the service encounter. Journal of Marketing, 81(5), 67-85.

Flacandji, M., & Krey, N. (2020). Remembering shopping experiences: the shopping experience memory scale. Journal of Business Research, 107, 279-289.

Foroudi, P., Jin, Z., Gupta, S., Melewar, T. C., & Foroudi, M. M. (2016). Influence of innovation capability and customer experience on reputation and loyalty. Journal of business research, 69(11), 4882-4889.

Grenha Teixeira, J., Patrício, L., Huang, K. H., Fisk, R. P., Nóbrega, L., & Constantine, L. (2017). The MINDS method: integrating management and interaction design perspectives for service design. Journal of Service Research, 20(3), 240-258.

Grewal, D., Kroschke, M., Mende, M., Roggeveen, A. L., & Scott, M. L. (2020). Frontline cyborgs at your service: How human enhancement technologies affect customer experiences in retail, sales, and service settings. Journal of Interactive Marketing, 51, 9-25.

Grewal, D., Roggeveen, A. L., & Nordfält, J. (2017). The Future of Retailing. Journal of Retailing, 93(1), 1-6.

Grewal, D., Roggeveen, A. L., Sisodia, R., & Nordfält, J. (2017). Enhancing customer engagement through consciousness. Journal of Retailing, 93(1), 55-64.

Grønholdt, L., Martensen, A., Jørgensen, S., & Jensen, P. (2015). Customer experience management and business performance. International Journal of Quality and Service Sciences, 7(1), 90-106.

Harkison, T., Hemmington, N., & Hyde, K. F. (2018). Creating the luxury accommodation experience: case studies from New Zealand. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 30(3), 1724-1740.

Holbrook, M. B., & Hirschman, E. C. (1982). The Experiential Aspects of Consumption: Consumer Fantasies, Feelings, and Fun. Journal of Consumer Research, 9(2), 132.

Hollebeek, L., & Rather, R. A. (2019). Service innovativeness and tourism customer outcomes. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 31(11), 4227-4246.

Holmlund, M., Van Vaerenbergh, Y., Ciuchita, R., Ravald, A., Sarantopoulos, P., Ordenes, F. V., & Zaki, M. (2020). Customer experience management in the age of big data analytics: A strategic framework. Journal of Business Research, 116, 356-365.

Hui, M. K., & Bateson, J. E. (1991). Perceived control and the effects of crowding and consumer choice on the service experience. Journal of Consumer Research, 18(2), 174-184.

Husemann, K. C., & Eckhardt, G. M. (2019). Consumer deceleration. Journal of Consumer Research, 45(6), 1142-1163.

Jain, R., Aagja, J., & Bagdare, S. (2017). Customer experience–A review and research agenda. Journal of Service Theory and Practice, 27(3), 642-662.

Kandampully, J., Zhang, T. C., & Jaakkola, E. (2018). Customer experience management in hospitality. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 30(1), 21-56.

Keyser, A., Verleye, K., Lemon, K. N., Keiningham, T. L., & Klaus, P. (2020). Moving the customer experience field forward: introducing the touchpoints, context, qualities (TCQ) nomenclature. Journal of Service Research, 23(4), 433-455.

Kim, S. S., Badu-Baiden, F., Oh, M. M., & Kim, J. (2020). Effects of African local food consumption experiences on post-tasting behavior. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 32(2), 625-643.

Klein, J. F., Falk, T., Esch, F. R., & Gloukhovtsev, A. (2016). Linking pop-up brand stores to brand experience and word of mouth: The case of luxury retail. Journal of Business Research, 69(12), 5761-5767.

Kraak, J. M., & Holmqvist, J. (2017). The authentic service employee: Service employees' language use for authentic service experiences. Journal of Business Research, 72, 199-209.

Kranzbühler, A. M., Kleijnen, M. H., Morgan, R. E., & Teerling, M. (2017). The multilevel nature of customer experience research: an integrative review and research agenda. International Journal of Management Reviews, 20(2), 433-456.

Lee, M., Lee, S. A., & Koh, Y. (2019). Multisensory experience for enhancing hotel guest experience: Empirical evidence from big data analytics. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 31(11), 4313-4337. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJCHM-03-2018-0263

Lemon, K. N., & Verhoef, P. C. (2016). Understanding customer experience throughout the customer journey. Journal of Marketing, 80(6), 69-96.

Liu, W., Sparks, B., & Coghlan, A. (2017). Fun, inspiration and discovery: from momentary experiences to overall evaluations. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 29(7), 1937–1955. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJCHM-12-2015-0735

Maggioni, I., Sands, S., Kachouie, R., & Tsarenko, Y. (2019). Shopping for well-being: The role of consumer decision-making styles. Journal of Business Research, 105, 21-32.

Mclean, G., Al-Nabhani, K., & Wilson, A. (2018). Developing a mobile applications customer experience model (MACE)-implications for retailers. Journal of Business Research, 85, 325-336.

McLeay, F., Lichy, J., & Major, B. (2019). Co-creation of the ski-chalet community experiencescape. Tourism Management, 74, 413-424.

Novak, T. P., Hoffman, D. L., & Yung, Y.-F. (2000). Measuring the Customer Experience in Online Environments: A Structural Modeling Approach. Marketing Science, 19(1), 22–42.

Paul, J., & Criado, A. R. (2020). The art of writing literature review: What do we know and what do we need to know?. International Business Review, 29(4), 101717.

Pelet, J. É., Ettis, S., & Cowart, K. (2017). Optimal experience of flow enhanced by telepresence: Evidence from social media use. Information & Management, 54(1), 115-128.

Pine, B. J., Pine, J., & Gilmore, J. H. (1999). The experience economy: work is theatre & every business a stage. Harvard Business Press.

Pizzi, G., Vannucci, V., & Aiello, G. (2020). Branding in the time of virtual reality: Are virtual store brand perceptions real?. Journal of Business Research, 119, 502-510.

Roggeveen, A. L., Grewal, D., & Schweiger, E. B. (2020). The DAST framework for retail atmospherics: The impact of in-and out-of-store retail journey touchpoints on the customer experience. Journal of Retailing, 96(1), 128-137.

Roschk, H., & Hosseinpour, M. (2020). Pleasant ambient scents: a meta-analysis of customer responses and situational contingencies. Journal of Marketing, 84(1), 125-145.

Scott, R., Cayla, J., & Cova, B. (2017). Selling pain to the saturated self. Journal of Consumer Research, 44(1), 22-43.

Scussel, F. B. C., Fogaça, N., & Demo, G. (2021). Consumption Experience: Proposal for an Unifying Concept. Revista Brasileira de Marketing, 20(1), 175-198.

Shi, S., Wang, Y., Chen, X., & Zhang, Q. (2020). Conceptualization of omnichannel customer experience and its impact on shopping intention: A mixed-method approach. International Journal of Information Management, 50, 325-336.

Story, V., Zolkiewski, J., Verleye, K., Nazifi, A., Hannibal, C., Grimes, A., & Abboud, L. (2020). Stepping out of the shadows: Supporting actors’ strategies for managing end-user experiences in service ecosystems. Journal of Business Research, 116, 401-411.

Sugathan, P., & Ranjan, K. R. (2019). Co-creating the tourism experience. Journal of Business Research, 100, 207-217.

Sundbo, J. (2015). From service quality to experience–and back again?. International Journal of Quality and Service Sciences, 7(1), 107-119.

Templier, M., & Paré, G. (2015). A framework for guiding and evaluating literature reviews. Communications of the Association for Information Systems, 37(1), 6.

Thomas, T. C., Epp, A. M., & Price, L. L. (2020). Journeying together: Aligning retailer and service provider roles with collective consumer practices. Journal of Retailing, 96(1), 9-24.

Tranfield, D., Denyer, D., & Smart, P. (2003). Towards a methodology for developing evidence-informed management knowledge by means of systematic review. British Journal of Management, 14(3), 207-222.

Vakulenko, Y., Shams, P., Hellström, D., & Hjort, K. (2019). Service innovation in e-commerce last mile delivery: Mapping the e-customer journey. Journal of Business Research, 101, 461-468.

Valentini, S., Neslin, S. A., & Montaguti, E. (2020). Identifying omnichannel deal prone segments, their antecedents, and their consequences. Journal of Retailing, 96(3), 310-327.

Van Eck, N. J.; Waltman, L. Citation-based clustering of publications using CitNetExplorer and VOSviewer. Scientometrics, 111(2), 1053-1070, 2017.

Von Briel, F. (2018). The future of omnichannel retail: A four-stage Delphi study. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 132, 217-229.

Wei, W., Torres, E. N., & Hua, N. (2017). The power of self-service technologies in creating transcendent service experiences: The paradox of extrinsic attributes. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 29(6), 1599-1618. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJCHM-01-2016-0029

Witell, L., Kowalkowski, C., Perks, H., Raddats, C., Schwabe, M., Benedettini, O., & Burton, J. (2020). Characterizing customer experience management in business markets. Journal of Business Research, 116, 420-430.

Wu, S.-H., & Gao, Y. (2019). Understanding emotional customer experience and co-creation behaviours in luxury hotels. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 31(11), 4247–4275.

Zha, D., Melewar, T. C., Foroudi, P., & Jin, Z. (2020). An assessment of brand experience knowledge literature: Using bibliometric data to identify future research direction. International Journal of Management Reviews, 22(3), 287-317.

Zheng, X., Baskin, E., & Dhar, R. (2019). By-brand or by-category? The effect of display format on brand extension evaluation. Journal of Retailing, 95(3), 76-85.

Zupic, I., & ?ater, T. (2015). Bibliometric methods in management and organization. Organizational research methods, 18(3), 429-47.






Copyright (c) 2022 Tourism & Management Studies

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.