Investigating the antecedents of innovative behaviors in the hotel industry of Turkey

Sima Rahimizhian, Foad Irani

Abstract


The growing focus on the benefits of innovative approaches to gain competitive advantages has inspired studies on the emergence of leadership styles that encourage employees to engage in innovative behaviors. This study examines the relationships between constructive leadership and employees' innovative behavior through the safety climate and employees' proactive behavior within the hospitality context. This paper considers constructive leaders as optimistic managers who regulate desired organizational outcomes with a genuine focus on the highest gains of employees and the organization. The person-environment fit (P–E fit) theory evaluated prominent organizational factors driving employees' innovative behavior. Two hundred seventy-two valid surveys were obtained among full-time employees of green hotels operating in Turkey. The proposed mediation model was analyzed using partial least squares structural equation modelling. According to the results, full-time employees of green Turkish hotels demonstrated improved, innovative behaviors at work, while a safe climate was paired with proactive behavior under constructive leadership supervision. The theoretical and managerial implications of findings, as well as recommendations for future research, are addressed.


Keywords


Constructive Leadership, Safety Climate, Proactive Behaviour, Employee’s Innovative Behaviour

Full Text:

PDF

References


Afsar, B., Masood, M., & Umrani, W. A. (2019). The role of job crafting and knowledge sharing on the effect of transformational leadership on innovative work behavior. Personnel Review, 48(5), 1186-1208. https://doi.org/10.1108/PR-04-2018-0133

Alheet, A., Adwan, A., Areiqat, A., Zamil, A., & Saleh, M. (2021). The effect of leadership styles on employees’ innovative work behavior. Management Science Letters, 11(1), 239-246. https://doi.org/10.5267/j.msl.2020.8.010

Amabile, T. M., & Fisher, C. M. (2000). Stimulate creativity by fueling passion. In Edwin A. Locke, Handbook of principles of organizational behavior (pp. 331-341), Willey Online Library. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781405164047.ch23

Amabile, T. M., Collins, M. A., Conti, R., Phillips, E., Picariello, M., Ruscio, J., & Whitney, D. (2018). Creativity in context: Update to the social psychology of creativity. Routledge.

Arasli, H., Arici, H. E., & Kole, E. (2020). Constructive leadership and employee innovative behaviors: a serial mediation model. Sustainability, 12(7), 2592. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12072592

Arici, H. E., & Uysal, M. (2021). Leadership, green innovation, and green creativity: a systematic review. The Service Industries Journal, 1-41. https://doi.org/10.1080/02642069.2021.1964482

Bammens, Y. P. (2016). Employees' innovative behavior in social context: A closer examination of the role of organizational care. Journal of Product Innovation Management, 33(3), 244-259. https://doi.org/10.1111/jpim.12267

Bani-Melhem, S., Zeffane, R., & Albaity, M. (2018). Determinants of employees’ innovative behavior. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 30(3), 1601-1620. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJCHM-02-2017-0079

Barling, J., Loughlin, C., & Kelloway, E. K. (2002). Development and test of a model linking safety-specific transformational leadership and occupational safety. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87(3), 488-496. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.87.3.488

Bass, B. M., & Stogdill, R. M. (1990). Bass & Stogdill's handbook of leadership: Theory, research, and managerial applications. Simon and Schuster.

Bindl, U. K., & Parker, S. K. (2011). Proactive work behavior: Forward-thinking and change-oriented action in organizations. In APA handbook of industrial and organizational psychology, Vol 2: Selecting and developing members for the organization. (pp. 567-598). American Psychological Association.

Buil, I., Martínez, E., & Matute, J. (2019). Transformational leadership and employee performance: The role of identification, engagement and proactive personality. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 77, 64-75. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhm.2018.06.014

Burns, W. A. (2017). A descriptive literature review of harmful leadership styles: Definitions, commonalities, measurements, negative impacts, and ways to improve these harmful leadership styles. Creighton Journal of Interdisciplinary Leadership, 3(1), 33-52. http://dx.doi.org/10.17062/CJIL.v3i1.53

Carlisle, S., Kunc, M., Jones, E., & Tiffin, S. (2013). Supporting innovation for tourism development through multi-stakeholder approaches: Experiences from Africa. Tourism Management, 35, 59-69. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2012.05.010

Carmeli, A., Sheaffer, Z., Binyamin, G., Reiter?Palmon, R., & Shimoni, T. (2014). Transformational leadership and creative problem?solving: The mediating role of psychological safety and reflexivity. The Journal of Creative Behavior, 48(2), 115-135. https://doi.org/10.1002/jocb.43

Chang, Y., Hou, R. J., Wang, K., Cui, A. P., & Zhang, C. B. (2020). Effects of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation on social loafing in online travel communities. Computers in Human Behavior, 109, 106360. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2020.106360

Chen, A. S. Y., & Hou, Y. H. (2016). The effects of ethical leadership, voice behavior and climates for innovation on creativity: A moderated mediation examination. The Leadership Quarterly, 27(1), 1-13.

Chen, L., Wadei, K. A., Bai, S., & Liu, J. (2020). Participative leadership and employee creativity: a sequential mediation model of psychological safety and creative process engagement. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 41(6), 741-759. https://doi.org/10.1108/LODJ-07-2019-0319

Chénard-Poirier, L. A., Morin, A. J., Boudrias, J. S., & Gillet, N. (2021). The combined effects of destructive and constructive leadership on thriving at work and behavioral empowerment. Journal of Business and Psychology, 1-17. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10869-021-09734-7

Choi, H., Jang, J., & Kandampully, J. (2015). Application of the extended VBN theory to understand consumers’ decisions about green hotels. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 51, 87-95. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhm.2015.08.004

Choi, J. N. (2004). Person–environment fit and creative behavior: Differential impacts of supplies–values and demands–abilities versions of fit. Human Relations, 57(5), 531-552.

Christian, M. S., Bradley, J. C., Wallace, J. C., & Burke, M. J. (2009). Workplace safety: a meta-analysis of the roles of person and situation factors. Journal of Applied Psychology, 94(5), 1103-27. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0016172

Clarke, S. (2013). Safety leadership: A meta?analytic review of transformational and transactional leadership styles as antecedents of safety behaviours. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 86(1), 22-49.

Colbert, A. E., Barrick, M. R., & Bradley, B. H. (2014). Personality and leadership composition in top management teams: Implications for organizational effectiveness. Personnel Psychology, 67(2), 351-387.

De Jong, J. P., & Den Hartog, D. N. (2007). How leaders influence employees' innovative behaviour. European Journal of innovation management, 10(1), 41-64.

Dedahanov, A. T., Bozorov, F., & Sung, S. (2019). Paternalistic leadership and innovative behavior: Psychological empowerment as a mediator. Sustainability, 11(6), 1770. https://doi.org/10.3390/su11061770

Dijkstra, T. K., & Henseler, J. (2015). Consistent partial least squares path modeling. MIS quarterly, 39(2), 297-316.

Drejer, I. (2004). Identifying innovation in surveys of services: A Schumpeterian perspective. Research policy, 33(3), 551-562.

Edmondson, A. (1999). Psychological safety and learning behavior in work teams. Administrative science quarterly, 44(2), 350-383.

Eid, J., Mearns, K., Larsson, G., Laberg, J. C., & Johnsen, B. H. (2012). Leadership, psychological capital and safety research: Conceptual issues and future research questions. Safety science, 50(1), 55-61.

Ekvall, G., & Arvonen, J. (1991). Change-centered leadership: An extension of the two-dimensional model. Scandinavian Journal of Management, 7(1), 17-26.

Eliyana, A., & Christiananta, B. (2020). Enhancing innovative work behavior in the hospitality industry: Empirical research from East Java, Indonesia. International Journal of Business and Society, 21(1), 96-110.

Ferraris, A., Santoro, G., & Dezi, L. (2017). How MNC’s subsidiaries may improve their innovative performance? The role of external sources and knowledge management capabilities. Journal of Knowledge Management, 21(3), pp. 540-552. https://doi.org/10.1108/JKM-09-2016-0411

Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error: Algebra and statistics. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(3), 382-388. https://doi.org/10.2307/3150980

Fuller, J. B., Marler, L. E., & Hester, K. (2006). Promoting felt responsibility for constructive change and proactive behavior: Exploring aspects of an elaborated model of work design. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 27(8), 1089-1120.

Garrick, A., Mak, A. S., Cathcart, S., Winwood, P. C., Bakker, A. B., & Lushington, K. (2014). Psychosocial safety climate moderating the effects of daily job demands and recovery on fatigue and work engagement. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 87(4), 694-714.

Goffin, K., & Mitchell, R. (2016). Innovation management: effective strategy and implementation. Macmillan International Higher Education.

Gong, Y., Cheung, S. Y., Wang, M., & Huang, J. C. (2012). Unfolding the proactive process for creativity: Integration of the employee proactivity, information exchange, and psychological safety perspectives. Journal of Management, 38(5), 1611-1633.

Grant, A. M., Ashford, S. J. (2008). The dynamics of proactivity at work. Research in Organizational Behavior, 28, 3–34. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.riob.2008.04.002

Gui, C., Luo, A., Zhang, P., & Deng, A. (2020). A meta-analysis of transformational leadership in hospitality research. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 32(6), 2137-2154. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJCHM-05-2019-0507

Hadi, D. M., Irani, F., & Gökmeno?lu, K. K. (2020). External determinants of the stock price performance of tourism, travel, and leisure firms: evidence from the United States. International Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Administration, 1-17. https://doi.org/10.1080/15256480.2020.1842838

Hadood, A. A. A., & Irani, F. (2020). Impact of economic sentiment and economic policy uncertainty on travel and leisure stock return. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Insights, 4(1), 98-120. https://doi.org/10.1108/JHTI-05-2020-0070

Hair Jr, J. F., Sarstedt, M., Hopkins, L., & Kuppelwieser, V. G. (2014). Partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM): An emerging tool in business research. European Business Review, 26(2), 106-121. https://doi.org/10.1108/EBR-10-2013-0128

Hair, J. F., Ringle, C. M., & Sarstedt, M. (2013). Partial least squares structural equation modeling: Rigorous applications, better results and higher acceptance. Long range planning, 46(1-2), 1-12.

Han, H., Hsu, L. T. J., & Sheu, C. (2010). Application of the theory of planned behavior to green hotel choice: Testing the effect of environmental friendly activities. Tourism management, 31(3), 325-334.

Henseler, J., Hubona, G., & Ray, P. A. (2016). Using PLS path modeling in new technology research: updated guidelines. Industrial Management & Data Systems, 116(1), 2-20. https://doi.org/10.1108/IMDS-09-2015-0382

Henseler, J., Ringle, C. M., & Sarstedt, M. (2015). A new criterion for assessing discriminant validity in variance-based structural equation modeling. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 43(1), 115-135.

Hew, J. J., Lee, V. H., Ooi, K. B., & Wei, J. (2015). What catalyses mobile apps usage intention: an empirical analysis. Industrial Management & Data Systems, 115(7), 1269-1291. https://doi.org/10.1108/IMDS-01-2015-0028

Hogan, S. J., & Coote, L. V. (2014). Organizational culture, innovation, and performance: A test of Schein's model. Journal of Business Research, 67(8), 1609-1621.

Hu, M. L. M., Horng, J. S., & Sun, Y. H. C. (2009). Hospitality teams: Knowledge sharing and service innovation performance. Tourism Management, 30(1), 41-50.

Hunter, S. T., Cushenbery, L. D., & Jayne, B. (2017). Why dual leaders will drive innovation: Resolving the exploration and exploitation dilemma with a conservation of resources solution. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 38(8), 1183-1195. https://doi.org/10.1002/job.2195

Irani, F., & Rahimizhian, S. (2021). Exploring the association among intention to study abroad, destination brand awareness, WOM, and destination choice of international students of North Cyprus. Presentation at the Managing Tourism Across Continents (MTCON'21) Conference, 1-3 April 2021, Online.

Irani, F., Ozturen, A., & Akhshik, A. (2021). Host-tourist interactions and residents’ attitudes towards sustainable tourism development. In A. Decrop, A. Correia, A. Fyall, & M. Kozak (Eds.), Sustainable and collaborative tourism in a digital world (pp. 123-134). Oxford: Goodfellow Publishers.

Jafri, M. H. (2010). Organizational commitment and employee's innovative behavior: A study in retail sector. Journal of Management Research, 10(1), 62-68.

Jaiswal, N. K., & Dhar, R. L. (2015). Transformational leadership, innovation climate, creative self-efficacy and employee creativity: A multilevel study. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 51, 30-41.

Javed, B., Naqvi, S. M. M. R., Khan, A. K., Arjoon, S., & Tayyeb, H. H. (2017). Impact of inclusive leadership on innovative work behavior: The role of psychological safety. Journal of Management & Organization, 25(1), 117-136. https://doi.org/10.1017/jmo.2017.3

Jeong, D. U., & Chun, B. J. (2019). The mediation effect of trust and communication on relationship between organizational culture and innovative behavior: Focused on manufacturing business. Asia-Pacific Journal of Business, 10(1), 39-54.

Karatepe, O. M., Aboramadan, M., & Dahleez, K. A. (2020). Does climate for creativity mediate the impact of servant leadership on management innovation and innovative behavior in the hotel industry? International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 32(8), 2497-2517. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJCHM-03-2020-0219

Kessel, M., Hannemann-Weber, H., & Kratzer, J. (2012). Innovative work behavior in healthcare: The benefit of operational guidelines in the treatment of rare diseases. Health policy, 105(2), 146-153.

Khan, M. A., Ismail, F. B., Hussain, A., & Alghazali, B. (2020). The interplay of leadership styles, innovative work behavior, organizational culture, and organizational citizenship behavior. SAGE Open, 10(1). https://doi.org/10.1177/2158244019898264

Khaola, P., & Coldwell, D. (2019). Explaining how leadership and justice influence employee innovative behaviours. European Journal of Innovation Management, 22(1), 193-212. https://doi.org/10.1108/EJIM-08-2017-0103

Khessina, O. M., Goncalo, J. A., & Krause, V. (2018). It’s time to sober up: The direct costs, side effects and long-term consequences of creativity and innovation. Research in Organizational Behavior, 38, 107-135.

Kim, T. T., & Lee, G. (2013). Hospitality employee knowledge-sharing behaviors in the relationship between goal orientations and service innovative behavior. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 34, 324-337.

Kim, T. Y., Hon, A. H., & Crant, J. M. (2009). Proactive personality, employee creativity, and newcomer outcomes: A longitudinal study. Journal of Business and Psychology, 24(1), 93-103.

Kristof, A. L. (1996). Person?organization fit: An integrative review of its conceptualizations, measurement, and implications. Personnel Psychology, 49(1), 1-49.

Krizaj, D., Brodnik, A., & Bukovec, B. (2014). A tool for measurement of innovation newness and adoption in tourism firms. International Journal of Tourism Research, 16(2), 113-125.

Li, N., Liang, J., & Crant, J. M. (2010). The role of proactive personality in job satisfaction and organizational citizenship behavior: a relational perspective. Journal of applied psychology, 95(2), 395.

Lind, E. A., & Van den Bos, K. (2002). When fairness works: Toward a general theory of uncertainty management. Research in Organizational Behavior, 24, 181-223.

Lundmark, R., Nielsen, K., Hasson, H., von Thiele Schwarz, U., & Tafvelin, S. (2020). No leader is an island: contextual antecedents to line managers' constructive and destructive leadership during an organizational intervention. International Journal of Workplace Health Management, 13(2), 173-188. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJWHM-05-2019-0065

Luu, T. T. (2020). Integrating green strategy and green human resource practices to trigger individual and organizational green performance: The role of environmentally-specific servant leadership. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 28(8), 1193-1222.

Madjar, N., Greenberg, E., & Chen, Z. (2011). Factors for radical creativity, incremental creativity, and routine, noncreative performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 96(4), 730.

Maroco, J. (2011). Análise estatística com o SPSS Statistics. Wook.

Mathisen, G. E., Einarsen, S., & Mykletun, R. (2012). Creative leaders promote creative organizations. International Journal of Manpower, 33(4), 367-382.

Mhlanga, O. (2020). The innovation-employment nexus: an analysis of the impact of Airbnb on hotel employment. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Technology, 11(3), 407-423. https://doi.org/10.1108/JHTT-09-2019-0111

Moin, M. F., Omar, M. K., Wei, F., Rasheed, M. I., & Hameed, Z. (2021). Green HRM and psychological safety: How transformational leadership drives follower’s job satisfaction. Current Issues in Tourism, 24(16), 2269-2277.

Mokhber, M., Khairuzzaman, W., & Vakilbashi, A. (2018). Leadership and innovation: The moderator role of organization support for innovative behaviors. Journal of Management & Organization, 24(1), 108-128.

Mumford, M. D., & Licuanan, B. (2004). Leading for innovation: Conclusions, issues, and directions. The leadership quarterly, 15(1), 163-171.

Muñoz-Pascual, L., & Galende, J. (2020). Ambidextrous relationships and social capability as employee well-being: The secret sauce for research and development and sustainable innovation performance. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(9), 3072.

Nielsen, M. B., Skogstad, A., Matthiesen, S. B., & Einarsen, S. (2016). The importance of a multidimensional and temporal design in research on leadership and workplace safety. The Leadership Quarterly, 27(1), 142-155.

Odoardi, C., Battistelli, A., Montani, F., & Peiró, J. M. (2019). Affective commitment, participative leadership, and employee innovation: A multilevel investigation. Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 35(2), 103-113.

Parameswaran, R., & Yaprak, A. (1987). A cross-national comparison of consumer research measures. Journal of International Business Studies, 18(1), 35-49.

Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Lee, J. Y., & Podsakoff, N. P. (2003). Common method biases in behavioral research: a critical review of the literature and recommended remedies. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88(5), 879-903. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.88.5.879.

Rahimizhian, S., & Irani, F. (2020). Contactless hospitality in a post-Covid-19 world. International Hospitality Review. https://doi.org/10.1108/IHR-08-2020-0041

Rahimizhian, S., Avci, T., & Eluwole, K. K. (2020). A conceptual model development of the impact of higher education service quality in guaranteeing edu?tourists' satisfaction and behavioral intentions. Journal of Public Affairs, 20(3), e2085. https://doi.org/10.1002/pa.2085

Rahimizhian, S., Ozturen, A., & Ilkan, M. (2020). Emerging realm of 360-degree technology to promote tourism destination. Technology in Society, 63, 101411. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.techsoc.2020.101411

Rank, J., Carsten, J. M., Unger, J. M., & Spector, P. E. (2007). Proactive customer service performance: Relationships with individual, task, and leadership variables. Human Performance, 20(4), 363-390.

Ringle, C. M., Wende, S., & Becker, J. M. (2015). SmartPLS 3. SmartPLS GmbH.

Saether, E. A. (2019). Motivational antecedents to high-tech R&D employees' innovative work behavior: Self-determined motivation, person-organization fit, organization support of creativity, and pay justice. The Journal of High Technology Management Research, 30(2), 100350.

Sagnak, M. (2012). The empowering leadership and teachers innovative behavior: The mediating role of innovation climate. African Journal of Business Management, 6(4), 1635-1641.

Schaufeli, W. B., Bakker, A. B., & Salanova, M. (2006). The measurement of work engagement with a short questionnaire: A cross-national study. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 66(4), 701-716.

Schmitt, A., Den Hartog, D. N., & Belschak, F. D. (2016). Transformational leadership and proactive work behavior: A moderated mediation model including work engagement and job strain. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 89(3), 588-610.

Schumpeter, J. A. (1934). The theory of economic development: An inquiry into profits, capital, credit, interest, and the business cycle. Harvard University Press.

Segarra-Ciprés, M., Roca-Puig, V., & Bou-Llusar, J. C. (2014). External knowledge acquisition and innovation output: an analysis of the moderating effect of internal knowledge transfer. Knowledge Management Research & Practice, 12(2), 203-214.

Seibert, S. E., Kraimer, M. L., & Liden, R. C. (2001). A social capital theory of career success. Academy of Management Journal, 44(2), 219-237.

Sousa, F. C., Nunes, F., & Monteiro, I. (2019). Managers’ attitudes to creativity and innovation practices in the creative industries. Tourism & Management Studies, 15(1SI), 33-41. https://doi.org/10.18089/tms.2019.15SI04

Tierney, P., Farmer, S. M., & Graen, G. B. (1999). An examination of leadership and employee creativity: The relevance of traits and relationships. Personnel Psychology, 52(3), 591-620.

Tu, Y., Lu, X., Choi, J. N., & Guo, W. (2019). Ethical leadership and team-level creativity: Mediation of psychological safety climate and moderation of supervisor support for creativity. Journal of Business Ethics, 159(2), 551-565.

Tuan, L. T. (2021). Disentangling green service innovative behavior among hospitality employees: The role of customer green involvement. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 99, 103045.

UNWTO. (2020). UNWTO world tourism barometer. Available at https://www.e-unwto.org/loi/wtobarometereng

Wang, C. J., & Yang, I. (2021). Why and How Does Empowering Leadership Promote Proactive Work Behavior? An Examination with a Serial Mediation Model among Hotel Employees. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(5), 2386.

Wu, C. H., & Parker, S. K. (2017). The role of leader support in facilitating proactive work behavior: A perspective from attachment theory. Journal of Management, 43(4), 1025-1049.

Xu, Z., Yang, F., & Peng, J. (2021). How does authentic leadership influence employee voice? From the perspective of the theory of planned behavior. Current Psychology, 1-19. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12144-021-01464-6

Yamak, O. U., & Eyupoglu, S. Z. (2021). Authentic leadership and service innovative behavior: mediating role of proactive personality. SAGE Open, 11(1), 2158244021989629. https://doi.org/10.1177/2158244021989629

Yilmaz, O., Yildirim, A., & Yucedag, D. (2018). Assessment of personality from a new perspective: Characterix personality types inventory. International Journal of Scientific Research and Management, 6(03), 103-116. https://doi.org/10.18535/ijsrm/v6i3.el02

Yuan, F., & Woodman, R. W. (2010). Innovative behavior in the workplace: The role of performance and image outcome expectations. Academy of Management Journal, 53(2), 323-342.

Zhang, W., Xu, F., & Wang, X. (2020). How green transformational leadership affects green creativity: Creative process engagement as intermediary bond and green innovation strategy as boundary spanner. Sustainability, 12(9), 3841. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12093841

Zhang, Y., Zhang, J., Forest, J., & Chen, C. (2018). The negative and positive aspects of employees’ innovative behavior: role of goals of employees and supervisors. Frontiers in psychology, 9, 1871. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.01871

Zohar, D. (1980). Safety climate in industrial organizations: theoretical and applied implications. Journal of Applied Psychology, 65(1), 96-102. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.65.1.96






Copyright (c) 2021 Tourism & Management Studies

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.