Enhancing consumer attitudes toward a website as a contributing factor in business success

Juan Miguel Alcántara-Pilar, Fª Javier Blanco-Encomienda, Mª Eugenia Rodríguez-López, Salvador Del Barrio-García

Abstract


This paper examines how consumers develop their attitude toward a destination website and are influenced by its usability, perceived risk and perceived usefulness – all of which can enhance their purchase intention. To create an authentic browsing scenario for the study, a website was specially designed for a fictitious tourist destination. Participants were invited to browse the site freely while carrying out the task assigned to them. This approach contributed added value to the research by simulating the real behavior of consumers who are faced with a range of options when selecting their purchase. The findings confirm that perceived usability and usefulness exert a positive influence on attitude toward the website, while the effect of the perceived risk is negative. The key implication is that if tourism business managers can better understand how attitude toward a website is developed this will enable them to market their products and services more effectively.


Keywords


Tourist destination, website, attitude, consumer, purchase intention.

Full Text:

PDF

References


Ajzen, I. & Fishbein, M. (1980). Understanding attitudes and predicting social behavior. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Alcántara-Pilar, J. M., Barrio-García, S. D., & Crespo-Almendros, E. (2015). Cross-cultural comparison of the relationships among perceived risk online, perceived usability and satisfaction during browsing of a tourist website. Tourism & Management Studies, 11(1), 15-24.

Bagozzi, R. P. (1982). A field investigation of causal relationships among cognition, affect, intentions, and behavior. Journal of Marketing Research, 19, 562–584.

Bauer, R. A. (1960). Consumer behavior as risk taking. In R. S. Hancock (ed.), Dynamic marketing for a changing world (pp. 389–398). Chicago: American Marketing Association.

Ben-Bassat, T., Meyer, J. & Tractinsky, N. (2006). Economic and subjetive measures of the perceived value of aesthetics and usability. ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction, 13(2), 210–234.

Bevan, N. (2009). International standards for usability should be more widely used. Journal of Usability Studies, 4(3), 106–113.

Bhatnagar, A. & Ghose, S. (2004). Segmenting consumers based on the benefits and risks of internet shopping. Journal of Business Research,

(12), 1352–1360.

Bhatnagar, A., Misra, S. & Rao, H. R. (2000). On risk, convenience, and Internet shopping behavior. Communications of the ACM, 43(11), 98–105.

Brave, S. & Nass, C. (2008). Emotion in human computer interaction. In A. Sears & J. A. Jacko (eds.), The human-computer interaction handbook: Fundamentals, evolving technologies and emerging applications (pp. 77–92). New York: CRC Press.

Cappel, J. J. & Huang, Z. (2007). A usability analysis of company websites. Journal of Computer Information Systems, 48(1), 117–123.

Castañeda, J. A., Muñoz-Leiva, F. & Luque, T. (2007). Web acceptance model: Moderating effects of user experience. Information & Management, 44(4), 384–396.

Chang, M. K., Cheung, W. & Tang, M. (2013). Building trust online: Interactions among trust building mechanisms. Information & Management, 50(7), 439–445.

Chen, L., Gillenson, M. L. & Sherrell, D. L. (2002). Enticing online consumer: An expected technology acceptance perspective. Information & Management, 39(8), 705–719.

Chung, N., Lee, H., Lee, J. S. & Koo, C. (2015). The influence of tourism website on tourists' behavior to determine destination selection: A case study of creative economy in Korea. Technological Forecasting & Social Change, 96, 130–143.

Cox, D. F. (1967). Risk taking and information handling in consumer behavior. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Crespo-Almendros, E., Del Barrio-García, S. & Alcántara-Pilar, J. M. (2015). What type of online sales promotion do airline users prefer? Analysis of the moderating role of users online experience level. Tourism & Management Studies, 11(1), 52–61.

Cunningham, S. M. (1967). Perceived risk and brand loyalty. In D. F. Cox (ed.), Risk taking and information handling in consumer behavior (pp. 507–523). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Dahlén, M., Friberg, L. & Nilsson, E. (2009). Long live creative media choice. Journal of Advertising, 38(2), 121–129.

Davis, F. D. (1989). Perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use and user acceptance of Information Technology. MIS Quarterly, 13(3), 319–340.

Dowling, G. R. & Staelin, R. (1994). A model of perceived risk and intended risk-handling activity. Journal of Consumer Research, 21(1), 119–134.

Featherman, M. S. & Pavlou, P. A. (2003). Predicting e-services adoption: A perceived risk facets perspective. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 59(4), 451–474.

Fornell, C. & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(1), 39–50.

Gefen, D. & Straub, D. W. (2000). The relative importance of perceived ease-of-use in IS adoption: A study of e-commerce adoption. Journal of the Association for Information Systems, 1, 1–28.

Green, D. T. & Pearson, J. M. (2011). Integrating website usability with the electronic commerce acceptance model. Behaviour & Information Technology, 30(2), 181–199.

Hair, J. F., Anderson, R. E., Tatham, R. L. & William, C. B. (1995). Multivariate data analysis with readings. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc.

Hsieh, M. T. & Tsao, W. C. (2014). Reducing perceived online shopping risk to enhance loyalty: A website quality perspective. Journal of Risk Research, 17(2), 241–261.

Hugstad, P., Taylor, J. W. & Bruce, G. D. (1987). The effects of social class and perceived risk on consumer information search. Journal of Services Marketing, 1(1), 47–52.

Internet World Stats (2016). World internet usage and population statistics. Retrieved February 11, 2016, from http://www.internetworldstats.com

ISO (1998). ISO 9241: Ergonomic requirements for office work with visual display terminals. Part 11 – Guidance on usability. Geneva: International Organization for Standardization.

Jarvenpaa, S. L., Tractinsky, N. & Saarinen, L. (1999). Consumer trust in an Internet store: A cross?cultural validation. Journal of Computer?Mediated Communication, 5(2), 1–33.

Kim, H., Kim, T. & Shin, S. W. (2009). Modeling roles of subjective norms and e-trust in customers' acceptance of airline B2C e-commerce websites. Tourism Management, 30(2), 266–277.

Kolesar, M. B. & Galbraith, R. W. (2000). A services?marketing perspective on e?retailing: Implications for e?retailers and directions for further research. Internet Research, 10(5), 424–438.

Koufaris, M. (2002). Applying the technology acceptance model and flow theory to online consumer behavior. Information Systems Research, 13(2), 205–223.

Laroche, M., Bergeron, J. & Goutaland, C. (2003). How intangibility affects perceived risk: The moderating role of knowledge and involvement. Journal of Services Marketing, 17(2), 122–140.

Lederer, A. L., Maupin, D. J., Sena, M. P. & Zhuang, Y. (2000). The technology acceptance model and the world wide web. Decision Support Systems, 29(3), 269–282.

Lee, Y., Kozar, K. A. & Larsen, K. R. T. (2003). The technology acceptance model: Past, present and future. Communications of the Association for Information Systems, 12(1), 752–780.

Limberger, P. F., Dos Anjos, F. A., de Souza Meira, J. V., & dos Anjos, S. J. G. (2014). Satisfaction in hospitality on TripAdvisor. com: An analysis of the correlation between evaluation criteria and overall satisfaction. Tourism & Management Studies, 10(1), 59-65.

Maignan, I. & Lukas, B. (1997). The nature and social uses of the Internet: A qualitative investigation. Journal of Consumer Affairs, 31(2), 346–371.

Mazaheri, E., Richard, M. & Laroche, M. (2011). Online consumer behavior: Comparing Canadian and Chinese website visitors. Journal of Business Research, 64(9), 958–965.

Mitchell, V. W. & Boustani, P. (1993). Market development using new products and new customers: A role for perceived risk. European Journal of Marketing, 27(2), 18–33.

Mitra, K., Reiss, M. & Capella, L. (1999). An examination of perceived risk, information search and behavioral intentions in search, experience and credence services. Journal of Services Marketing, 13(3), 208–228.

Mohseni, S., Jayashree, S., Rezaei, S., Kasim, A., & Okumus, F. (2016). Attracting tourists to travel companies’ websites: the structural relationship between website brand, personal value, shopping experience, perceived risk and purchase intention. Current Issues in Tourism, 1-30.

Neuhofer, B., Buhalis, D., & Ladkin, A. (2014). A typology of technology?enhanced tourism experiences. International Journal of Tourism Research, 16(4), 340-350.

Nielsen, J. & Coyne, K. P. (2001, February 15). A useful investment: Usability testing costs - but it pays for itself in the long run. CIO Magazine. Retrieved April 27, 2013, from http://www.cio.com/archive/021501

/et_pundits.html

Norman, D. A. & Ortony, A. (2003, November). Designers and users: Two perspectives on emotion and design. Paper presented at the Symposium on foundations of interaction design. Ivrea, Italy.

O’Cass, A. & Fenech, T. (2003). Web retailing adoption: Exploring the nature of internet users web retailing behaviour. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 10(2), 81–94.

O'Connor, R.J., Bansal?Travers, M., Carter, L.P. & Cummings, K.M. (2012). What would menthol smokers do if menthol in cigarettes were banned? Behavioral intentions and simulated demand, Addiction, 107 (7), 1330-1338.

Palmer, J. (2002). Web site usability, design, and performance metrics. Information Systems Research, 13(2), 151–167.

Pappas, N. (2016). Marketing strategies, perceived risks, and consumer trust in online buying behaviour. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 29, 92–103.

Porcu, L., del Barrio-García, S., Alcántara-Pilar, J. M., & Crespo-Almendros, E. (2016). Do adhocracy and market cultures facilitate firm-wide integrated marketing communication (IMC)?. International Journal of Advertising, 1-21 (in press).

Ramos, C., Correia, M. B., Rodrigues, J. M., Sousa, C. M., & Cascada, P. M. (2016). Hotel Websites Characterisation Fraework For Consumers Information Needs. Encontros Científicos-Tourism & Management Studies, 12(1), 25-39.

Romanazzi, S., Petruzzellis, L. & Iannuzzi, E. (2011). ‘Click & experience. Just virtually there’. The effect of a destination website on tourist choice: Evidence from Italy. Journal of Hospitality Marketing & Management, 20(7), 791–813.

Schmidt, K. E., Liu, Y. & Sridharan, S. (2009). Webpage aesthetics, performance and usability: Design variables and their effects. Ergonomics, 52(6), 631–643.

Seffah, A. & Metzker, E. (2004). The obstacles and myths of usability and software engineering. Communications of the ACM, 47(12), 71–76.

Shackel, B. (1991). Usability - context, framework, design and evaluation. In B. Shackel & S. Richardson (eds.), Human factors for informatics usability (pp. 21–38). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Sonderegger, A. & Sauer, J. (2010). The influence of design aesthetics in usability testing: Effects on user performance and perceived usability. Applied Ergonomics, 41(3), 403–410.

Taylor, S. & Todd, P. A. (1995). Understanding information technology usage: A test of competing models. Information Systems Research, 6(2), 144–176.

Thüring, M. & Mahlke, S. (2007). Usability, aesthetics and emotions in human–technology interaction. International Journal of Psychology, 42(4), 253–264.

Valenzuela, S., Kim, Y. & De Zúñiga, H.G. (2012). Social networks that matter: exploring the role of political discussion for online political participation, International Journal of Public Opinion Research, 24 (2), 163-184.

Verhage, B. J., Yavas, U., Green, R. T. & Borak, E. (1990). The perceived risk-brand loyalty relationship: An international perspective. Journal of Global Marketing, 3(3), 7–22.

Wakefield, R. L. & Whitten, D. (2006). Examining user perceptions of third-party organization credibility and trust in an e-relatier. Journal of Organizational and End User Computing, 18(2), 1–19.

Wen, I. (2012). An empirical study of an online travel purchase intention model. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 29(1), 18-39.

Zinkham, G. & Kirande, P. (1991). Cultural and gender differences in risk-taking behavior among American and Spanish decision makers. Journal of Social Psychology, 131(5), 741–742.






Copyright (c) 2018 Tourism & Management Studies

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.