Ruminative thought style and workplace ostracism’s effects on hotel employees’ turnover intention: the mediating effect of organisational identification
This study’s primary objective was to examine ruminative thought style and workplace ostracism’s effects on hotel employees’ turnover intention. A secondary objective was to investigate these effects through the mediator role of organisational identification. The data were collected by convenience sampling between 1 June and 1 October 2018 from employees of 12 5-star hotel businesses in Bodrum, Turkey, yielding 432 valid survey forms. The results show that ruminative thought style and workplace ostracism increase hotel employees’ turnover intention, while organisational identification decreases it. In addition, the latter variable plays a significant mediating role between ruminative thought styles and turnover intentions. Thus, managers need to create good working environments, support and participate in social activities with their team, make employees feel that they are a part of their organisation and frequently reiterate that each team member is valued.
Abrams, D. & Hogg, M. A. (1988). Comments on the motivational status
of self-esteem in social identity and intergroup discrimination.
European Journal of Social Psychology, 18(4), 317-334.
Akgündüz, Y. & Akdag, G. (2014). The effects of personality traits of
employees on core self-evaluation and turnover intention. Çanakkale
Onsekiz Mart Univ. J. Admin. Sci. 12 (24), 295–318.
Ashforth, B. E., & Mael, F. (1989). Social identity theory and the
organization. Academy of Management Review, 14(1), 20-39.
Balliet, D. & Ferris, D. L. (2013). Ostracism and prosocial behavior: A
social dilemma perspective. Organizational Behavior and Human
Decision Processes, 120(2), 298-308.
Bisht, N. S. (2014). Role ambiguity, role conflict and burnout: The
mediating role of rumination in higher education faculty. Research and
Sustainable Business Congress. 422-430. ISBN: 978-93-83842-19-3.
Brammer, S., He, H., & Mellahi, K. (2015). Corporate social
responsibility, employee organizational identification, and creative
effort: The moderating impact of corporate ability. Group &
Organization Management, 40(3), 323-352.
Brinker, J. K. & Dozois, D. J. (2009). Ruminative thought style and
depressed mood. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 65(1), 1-19.
Brislin, R. W. (1970). Back-translationforcross-culturalresearch. Journal
of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 1(3), 185-216.
Choi, K. (2006). A structural relationship analysis of hotel employees'
turnover intention. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 11(4), 321-337.
Chung, Y. W. (2018). Workplace ostracism and workplace behaviors: A
moderated mediation model of perceived stress and psychological
empowerment. Anxiety, Stress, & Coping, 31(3), 304-317.
Cole, M. S., & Bruch, H. (2006). Organizational identity strength,
identification, and commitment and their relationships to turnover
intention: Does organizational hierarchy matter?. Journal of
Organizational Behavior, 27(5), 585-605.
Cropanzano, R., Howes, J. C., Grandey, A. A. & Toth, P. (1997). The
relationship of organizational politics and support to work behaviors,
attitudes, and stress. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 18(2), 159-180.
DeConinck, J. B. (2011). The effects of leader–member exchange and
organizational identification on performance and turnover among
salespeople. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, 31(1), 21-34.
Dutton, J. E., Dukerich, J. M., & Harquail, C. V. (1994). Organizational
images and member identification. Administrative Science Quarterly,
Dysvik, A. & Kuvaas, B. (2010). Exploring the relative and combined
influence of mastery-approach goals and work intrinsic motivation on
employee turnover intention. Personnel Review, 39(5), 622-638.
Eisma, M. C. & Stroebe, M. S. (2017). Rumination following
bereavement: An overview. Bereavement Care, 36(2), 58-64.
Ellemers, N., De Gilder, D., & Haslam, S. A. (2004). Motivating
individuals and groups at work: A social identity perspective on
leadership and group performance. Academy of Management Review,
Evans, D. R. & Segerstrom, S. C. (2011). Why do mindful people worry
less?. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 35(6), 505-510.
Fatima, A. (2016). Impact of workplace ostracism on counter productive
work behaviors: Mediating role of job satisfaction. Abasyn University
Journal of Social Sciences, 9(2).
Ferris, D. L., Brown, D. J., Berry, J. W. & Lian, H. (2008). The development
and validation of the Workplace Ostracism Scale. Journal of Applied
Psychology, 93(6), 1348.
Fornell, C. & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models
with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of
Marketing Research, 39-50.
Gefen, D. & Ridings, C. M. (2002). Implementation team responsiveness
and user evaluation of customer relationship management: A quasiexperimental
design study of social exchange theory. Journal of
Management Information Systems, 19(1), 47-69.
Hair, J. F. Jr., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J. & Anderson, R. E. (2010).
Multivariate data analysis (7th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ:
Hair, J. F., Black, W. O., Babin, B. J., Anderson, R. E. & Tatham, R. L.
(2006). Multivariate data analysis a global perspective. New Jersey:
Harris, G. E., & Cameron, J. E. (2005). Multiple dimensions of
organizational identification and commitment as predictors of turnover
intentions and psychological well-being. Canadian Journal of
Behavioural Science, 37(3), 159.
Heaphy, E. D. & Dutton, J. E. (2008). Positive social interactions and the
human body at work: Linking organizations and physiology. Academy of
Management Review, 33(1), 137-162.
Hobfoll, S. E. (2001). The influence of culture, community, and the
nested-self in the stress process: advancing conservation of resources
theory. Applied Psychology An International Review, 50(3), 337–421.
Huang, H. I. (2007). Understanding culinary arts workers: Locus of
control, job satisfaction, work stress and turnover intention. Journal of
Foodservice Business Research, 9(2-3), 151-168.
Kultur (2016). yigm.kulturturizm.gov.tr/.../53370,isletme-ve-yatirimbelgeli-
tesis-istatistikleri-2016xl. Access date: 15 September 2017.
Leung, A. S., Wu, L. Z., Chen, Y. Y. & Young, M. N. (2011). The impact of
workplace ostracism in service organizations. International Journal of
Hospitality Management, 30(4), 836-844.
Liverant, G. I., Kamholz, B. W., Sloan, D. M. & Brown, T. A. (2011).
Rumination in clinical depression: A type of emotional suppression?.
Cognitive Therapy and Research, 35(3), 253-265.
Lu, V. N., Capezio, A., Restubog, S. L. D., Garcia, P. R., & Wang, L. (2016).
In pursuit of service excellence: Investigating the role of psychological
contracts and organizational identification of frontline hotel
employees. Tourism Management, 56, 8-19.
Mael, F., & Ashforth, B. E. (1992). Alumni and their alma mater: A partial
test of the reformulated model of organizational identification. Journal
of Organizational Behavior, 13(2), 103-123.
Michael, T., Halligan, S. L., Clark, D. M. & Ehlers, A. (2007). Rumination in
posttraumatic stress disorder. Depression and Anxiety, 24(5), 307-317.
Mobley, W. H. (1977). Intermediate linkages in the relationship
between job satisfaction and employee turnover. Journal of Applied
Psychology, 62(2), 237.
Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (1987). Sex differences in unipolar depression:
evidence and theory. Psychological Bulletin, 101(2), 259.
Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (1991). Responses to depression and their effects
on the duration of depressive episodes. Journal of Abnormal
Psychology, 100(4), 569.
Peng, A. C. & Zeng, W. (2017). Workplace ostracism and deviant and
helping behaviors: The moderating role of 360 degree feedback. Journal
of Organizational Behavior, 38(6), 833-855.
Qi, Y. & Ming-Xia, L. (2014). Ethical leadership, organizational
identification and employee voice: examining moderated mediation
process in the Chinese insurance industry. Asia Pacific Business Review,
Qian, J., Yang, F., Wang, B., Huang, C. & Song, B. (2017). When
workplace ostracism leads to burnout: The roles of job selfdetermination
and future time orientation. The International Journal of
Human Resource Management, 1-17.
Raley, A. B. (2010). Can't get it out of my head: The role of gender in the
relations between ruminative styles, negative affect, and stress
behaviors (Doctoral dissertation, Rice University).
Robinson, S. L., O’Reilly, J. & Wang, W. (2013). Invisible at work: An
integrated model of workplace ostracism. Journal of Management,
Rosen, C. C. & Hochwarter, W. A. (2014). Looking back and falling
further behind: The moderating role of rumination on the relationship
between organizational politics and employee attitudes, well-being,
and performance. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision
Processes, 124(2), 177-189.
Schumacker, R. E. ve Lomax, R. G. (2004). A beginner's guide to
structural equation modeling. Psychology Press.
Scott, K. L. & Duffy, M. K. (2015). Antecedents of workplace ostracism:
New directions in research and intervention. In Mistreatment in
Organizations (pp. 137-165). Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
Siu, O. L., Cheung, F. & Lui, S. (2015). Linking positive emotions to work
well-being and turnover intention among Hong Kong police officers:
The role of psychological capital. Journal of Happiness Studies, 16(2),
Smidts, A., Pruyn, A. T. H., & Van Riel, C. B. (2001). The impact of
employee communication and perceived external prestige on
organizational identification. Academy of Management Journal, 44(5),
Tett, R. P. & Meyer, J. P. (1993). Job satisfaction, organizational
commitment, turnover intention and turnover: Path analyses based on
meta-analytic findings. Personnel Psychology, 46(2), 259–293.
Turizmaktuel (2016). http://www.turizmaktuel.com/haber/turkiye-dekac-
tane-5-yildizli-otel-var. Access date: 15 October 2018.
Tracey, J. B. & Hinkin, T. R. (2008). Contextual factors and cost profiles
associated with employee turnover. Cornell Hospitality Quarterly, 49(1),
Vallerand, R. J., Houlfort, N., & Fores, J. (2003). Passion at work.
Emerging perspectives on values in organizations, 175-204.
Van Knippenberg, D., & Hogg, M. A. (2001). Social identity processes in
organizations. Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, 4(3), 185-189.
Williams, K. D. (2007). Ostracism. Annual Review of Psychology, 58.
Wu, C. H., Liu, J., Kwan, H. K. & Lee, C. (2016). Why and when workplace
ostracism inhibits organizational citizenship behaviors: An
organizational identification perspective. Journal of Applied Psychology,
Yang, J. T. (2008). Effect of new comersocialisation on organisational
commitment, job satisfaction, and turnover intention in the hotel
industry. The Service Industries Journal, 28(4), 429-443.
Yang, J. T., Wan, C. S., & Fu, Y. J. (2012). Qualitative examination of
employee turnover and retention strategies in international tourist
hotels in Taiwan. International Journal of Hospitality Management,
Yin, K. & Liu, Y. R. (2013). Workplace ostracism and turnover intention:
The roles of organizational identification and career resilience. Soft
Science, 27(4), 121-124.
Zeidner, M., Ben-Zur, H. & Reshef-Weil, S. (2011). Vicarious life threat:
An experimental test of Conservation of Resources (COR) theory.
Personality and Individual Differences, 50, 641–645.
Zhao, H., Peng, Z. & Sheard, G. (2013). Workplace ostracism and
hospitality employees’ counterproductive work behaviors: The joint
moderating effects of proactive personality and political skill.
International Journal of Hospitality Management, 33, 219-227.
Zheng, X., Yang, J., Ngo, H. Y., Liu, X. Y. & Jiao, W. (2016). Workplace
ostracism and its negative outcomes. Journal of Personnel Psychology,
Zhu, H., Lyu, Y., Deng, X. & Ye, Y. (2017). Workplace ostracism and proactive
customer service performance: A conservation of resources perspective.
International Journal of Hospitality Management, 64, 62-72.
Copyright (c) 2019 Tourism & Management Studies
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.