Connecting the dots: Contributions to the Creative Tourism Dynamics in Portugal

Ana Rita Cruz, Margarida Perestrelo, Maria Assunção Gato, Pedro Costa

Abstract


Drawing upon the implementation of an incubator and multidisciplinary collaborative research initiative – the CREATOUR project – which aims to develop a network of creative tourism initiatives in four Portuguese regions, the main purpose of this paper is to analyse the dynamics seen in the first stage of implementation of this network, trying to understand the relations and connections that have been established between the creative tourism actors operating at regional and national levels, and examining the main goals and challenges these particular actors face to implement such activities in small cities and rural areas of Portugal. Applying the methodological tools of Stakeholder Analysis and Social Network Analysis to the information collected from each of the 20 pilots involved in this stage of the project, the relationships between the various creative tourism pilot projects and other regional/external actors are represented, and the stakeholders’ expectations regarding future developments of the network are analysed.


Keywords


creative tourism, CREATOUR, stakeholder analysis, social network analysis

Full Text:

PDF

References


Ackermann, F., & Eden, C. (2011). Strategic Management of Stakeholders: Theory and Practice. Long Range Planning, 44(3), 179–196. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lrp.2010.08.001

Bastian, M., Heymann, S., & Jacomy, M. (2009). Gephi: An Open Source Software for Exploring and Manipulating Networks. International AAAI Conference on Weblogs and Social Media.

Baudet, S., & Weill, F. (2017). Intégrer le numérique dans les stratégies touristiques. La Caisse des Dépôts.

Bell, D., & Jayne, M. (2010). The creative countryside: Policy and practice in the UK rural cultural economy. Journal of Rural Studies, 26(3), 209–218. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jrurstud.2010.01.001

Binkhorst, E. (2007). Creativity in Tourism Experiences: the case of Sitges. In Tourism, Creativity and Development (pp. 125–144).

Borgatti, S. P., Everett, M. G., & Johnson, J. C. (2013). Analyzing Social Networks. London: Sage Publications, Ltd.

Burt, R. S. (1982). Toward a Structural Theory of Action: Network Models of Social Structure, Perception, and Action. New York: Academic Press.

Burt, R. S. (1992). Structural holes: the social structure of competition. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Carvalho, R., Ferreira, A. & Figueira, L. M. (2016). Cultural and Creative tourism in Portugal. Pasos - Revista de Turismo y Patrimonio Cultural, 14(5), 1075–1082. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/309282552_Cultural_and_Creative_Tourism_in_Portugal.

Costa, P. (2008). Creativity, innovation and territorial agglomeration in cultural activities: The roots of the creative city. In P. Cooke & L. Lazzeretti (Eds.), Creative Cities, Cultural Cluster and Local Economic Development (pp. 183–210). Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing.

Costa, P., Vasconcelos, B., & Sugahara, G. (2011). The urban milieu and the genesis of creativity in cultural activities: An introductory framework for the analysis of urban creative dynamics. Cidades, Comunidades e Territórios, (22), 3–21.

Cruz, A. R. (2016). (N)Um Lugar ao Sol: Contributos do Turismo para as Dinâmicas Criativas e para a Atracção da Classe Criativa no Algarve. Tese para obtenção do grau de Doutor, Universidade do Algarve, Faro.

De Bruin, A., & Jelin?i?, D. A. (2016). Toward extending creative tourism: participatory experience tourism. Tourism Review International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research, 71(1), 57–66. Retrieved from http://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/pdfplus/10.1108/TR-05-2015-0018.

Duxbury, N. (2011). Shifting Strategies and Contexts for Culture in Small City Planning: Interlinking Quality of Life, Economic Development, Downtown Vitality and Community Sustainability. In A. Lorentzen & B. van Heur (Eds.), Cultural Political Economy of Small Cities (pp. 161–178). London: Routledge.

Farrell, B. H., & Twining-Ward, L. (2004). Reconceptualizing tourism. Annals of Tourism Research, 31(2), 274–295. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annals.2003.12.002.

Flew, T., & Cunningham, S. (2010). Creative industries after the first decade of debate. Information Society - Creative Industries and Urban Development, 26(2), 113–123. https://doi.org/10.1080/01972240903562753.

Florida, R. (2003). Cities and the Creative Class. City and Community, 2(1), 3–19. https://doi.org/10.1111/1540-6040.00034.

Fritsch, M., & Kauffeld-Monz, M. (2010). The impact of network structure on knowledge transfer: an application of social network analysis in the context of regional innovation networks. The Annals of Regional Science, 44(1), 21–38. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00168-008-0245-8.

Getz, D., & Timur, S. (2005). Stakeholder involvement in sustainable tourism. balancing the voices. In W. Theobald (Ed.), Global tourism (3rd ed., pp. 230–247). Elsevier Ltd.

Godet, M. (2006). Creating Futures: Scenario Planning as a Strategic Management Tool. France: Economica.

Gonçalves, A. R. (2008). As Comunidades Criativas, o Turismo e a Cultura. Dos Algarves, Revista Da ESGHT/UALG, (17), 11–18.

Goodwin, H., & Francis, J. (2003). Ethical and responsible tourism: Consumer trends in the UK. Journal of Vacation Marketing, 9(3), 271–284.

Granovetter, M. (1973). The strength of weak ties. American Journal of Sociology, 78(6), 1360–1380.

Granovetter, M. (1983). The strength of weak ties: A network theory revisited. Sociological Theory, 1, 201–233.

Hannigan, J. (1998). Fantasy City: pleasure and profit in the postmodern metropolis. London: Routledge.

Hannigan, J. (2007). From Fantasy City to Creative City. In G. Richards & J. Wilson (Eds.), Tourism, Creativity and Development (pp. 48–56). London, New York: Routledge.

Hartley, J. (ed. (2005). Creative Industries. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.

Hirons, M., Comberti, C., & Dunford, R. (2016). Valuing Cultural Ecosystem Services. Annual Review of Environment and Resources, 41(1), 545–574. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-environ-110615-085831.

Jayne, M., Gibson, C., Waitt, G., & Bell, D. (2010). The Cultural Economy of Small Cities. Geography Compass, 4(9), 1408–1417. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-8198.2010.00380.

Korez-Vide, R. (2013). Promoting Sustainability of Tourism by Creative Tourism Development: How Far Is Slovenia? Innovative Issues and Approaches in Social Sciences, 6(1), str. 77-102. https://doi.org/10.12959/issn.1855-0541.IIASS-2013-no1-art05.

Landry, C. (2000). The creative city: a toolkit for urban innovators. London, Sterling V.A.: Earthscan.

Lash, S., & Urry, J. (1994). Economies of signs and space. London, Thousand Oaks, New Delhi: Sage.

Markusen, A. (2007). The Urban Core as Cultural Sticky Place. In D. Henckel, E. Pahl-Weber, & B. Herkommer (Eds.), Time Space Places (pp. 173–187). Berlin: Peter Lang Verlag.

Milcu, A. I., Hanspach, J., Abson, D., & Fischer, J. (2013). Cultural ecosystem services: A literature review and prospects for future research. Ecology & Society, 18(3), 44–88. https://doi.org/10.5751/ES-05790-180344.

Newman, M. (2010). Networks: An Introduction. New York: Oxford University Press.

O’Connor, J. (2010). The cultural and creative industries: a literature review. Newcastle: Creativity, Culture and Education.

Pine, B. J. & Gilmore, J. H. (1999). The Experience Economy: Work is Theatre & Every Business a Stage. Boston: Harvard University Press.

Pritchard, A., Morgan, N., & Ateljevic, I. (2011). Hopeful tourism: A New Transformative Perspective. Annals of Tourism Research, 38(3), 941–963.

Richards, G. (2002). Creating a new tourism? In S. Garcia (Ed.), Turisme i Cultura. Debats del. Congrés de Turisme Cultural SITC. Barcelona: Fundacio Interarts. Retrieved from https://independent.academia.edu/gregrichards.

Richards, G., & Raymond, C. (2000). Creative Tourism. ATLAS News, (23), 16–20.

Richards, G., & Wilson, J. (2007). Tourism development trajectories: from culture to creativity? In G. Richards & J. Wilson (Eds.), Tourism, Creativity and Development (pp. 1–33). London, New York: Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203933695.

Russo, A. & Richards, G. (2016). Introduction. In A. Russo & G. Richards (Eds.), Reinventing the local in tourism: producing, consuming and negotiating place (pp. 1–12). Bristol: Channel View Publications.

Sarukhán, J., & White, A. (2005). Ecosystems and Human Well-Being: synthesis. Washington, D.C., USA.

Scott, A. J. (2000). The Cultural Economy of Cities: essays on the geography of image-producing industries. New Delhi, London- Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, Ltd.

Scott, A. J. (2006). Creative cities: Conceptual issues and policy questions. Journal of Urban Affairs, 28(1), 1–17. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0735-2166.2006.00256.

Scott, J. (2013). Social Network Analysis (Third Ed). London: Sage Publications, Ltd.

Scott, N., Baggio, R., & Cooper, C. (2008). Introduction. In N. Scott, R. Baggio, & C. Cooper (Eds.), Network Analysis and Tourism: From Theory to Practice (pp. 1–7). Clevedon, UK: Channel View Publications.

Tan, S. K., Luh, D. B., & Kung, S. F. (2014). A taxonomy of creative tourists in creative tourism. Tourism Management, 42, 248–259. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2013.11.008.

Ter Wal, A. L. J., & Boschma, R. (2009). Applying social network analysis in economic geography: framing some key analytic issues. The Annals of Regional Science, 43(3), 739–756. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00168-008-0258-3.

Toffler, A. (1980). The Third Wave. United States: Bantam Books.

van Heur, B. (2010). Small cities and the geographical bias of creative industries research and policy. Journal of Policy Research in Tourism, Leisure and Events, 2(2), 189–192.






Copyright (c) 2019 Tourism & Management Studies

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.